A Review of Volcano Geophysics and Volcano-Monitoring Methods
In the past two decades, considerable progress has been realized in the geophysical studies of volcanoes aimed at explaining the source processes, modeling the magma feeding system, understanding the eruption dynamics, and forecasting the eruption onsets and their evolution. Seismicity patterns, detection of anomalous strain episodes through tiltmeters, dilatometers and microgravimeters are nowadays common techniques widely used to detect precursory changes and to model some volcanic processes. Low-cost PC-based data acquisition systems are now available to obtain real-time automated monitoring data.
In general, several types of monitoring systems are required to detect the large variety of geophysical signals observed on volcanoes. Among the most promising techniques, the use of dense arrays of digital broad-band seismometers offers the opportunity to obtain a high-resolution tomographic image of the fluidodynamic activity. This technique, coupled with high sensitivity borehole arrays of strainmeters, and with more traditional stress — strain measurements seems to be a promising one for improving detection of precursory signals of eruptions.
In addition, the use of nonlinear mechanical models, involving the inclusion of anelastic properties of materials and fluid percolation, can furnish the theoretical basis for a quantitative approach to volcano modeling and eruption forecasting.
KeywordsConvection Attenuation Geochemistry Explosive Holocene
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