Comments on: Germany’s Changing Competitive Position in World Markets: Required Political Shifts

  • Karl-Hans Hartwig
Conference paper


The present debate about the international competitiveness of the German economy is not a new one. Whenever the economic situation turns into a recession - like in the mid-seventies, the beginning of the eighties, and, at last, 1993 - Germany’s competitiveness is discussed widely and with great vehemence. A number of indicators are used to prove fundamental deterioration.1 Yet as soon as output and employment grow again, the controversy will immediately come to an end. In Germany we are now in such a situation. After a deep decline in 1993, exports and growth rates of domestic output have risen on a remarkable level since 1994. One does not have to be a clairvoyant to forecast an end to the competitiveness debate very shortly, especially since the per capita income, investment ratio, unemployment rate, and share of world exports do not indicate that Germany has fallen back over time with respect to either of these indicators.


Foreign Direct Investment Public Debt Competitive Position International Competitiveness German Economy 
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  1. 1.
    K.-H. Hartwig (1990), Bundesrepublik Deutschland, bleibende Dominanz in Europa, in: D. Cassel (Ed.), Wirtschaftssysteme im Umbruch, München, p. 389–410.Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

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  • Karl-Hans Hartwig

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