Advertisement

Soil Parameters which Affect the Survival of Azospirillum brasilense

  • Yoav Bashan
  • M. Esther Puente
  • M. Nieves Rodriguez-Mendoza
  • Gina Holguin
  • Gerardo Toledo
  • Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato
  • Sergio Pedrin
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 37)

Abstract

The survival of Azospirillum brasilense strains Cd and Sp-245 was evaluated in the rhizosphere of wheat and tomato plants and in 23 plant-free soils of 23 soil types obtained from a wide range of environmental conditions in Israel and Mexico. The survival rate of A. brasilense was analyzed for 15 soil parameters. A. brasilense survived well in all the rhizospheres tested, regardless of soil type, bacterial strain, the origin of the soil, or the amount of rainfall each soil received prior to sampling. In the absence of plants, the general survival characteristics of A. brasilense differed and were related mainly to the geographical origin of the soil and not to prevailing environmental conditions. We propose that: (i) A. brasilense is a rhizosphere colonizer which survives poorly in most soils for prolonged periods, (ii) Some major physical and chemical soil parameters may affect survival of the bacteria in plantless soils.

Keywords

Soil Parameter Rhizosphere Bacterium Azospirillum Brasilense Azospirillum Lipoferum Chemical Soil Parameter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albrecht SL, Gaskins MH, Milam JR, Schank SC, Smith RL (1983) Ecological factors affecting survival and activity of Azospirillum in the rhizosphere. In Azospirillum II Genetics, physiology, ecology. Edited by W. Klingmtiller, Birhauser Verlag, Basel, pp. 138–148.Google Scholar
  2. Baldani VLD, Alvarez MA de B, Baldani JI, Döbereiner J (1986) Establishment of inoculated Azospirillum spp. in the rhizosphere and in roots of field grown wheat and sorghum. Plant Soil 90: 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldani VLD, Baldani JI, Döbereiner J (1987) Inoculation of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Azospirillum spp. in Brazil. Biol. Fertil. Soils 4: 37–40.Google Scholar
  4. Bashan Y (1986 a) Enhancement of wheat roots colonization and plant development by Azospirillum brasilense Cd. following temporary depression of the rhizosphere microflora. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 51: 1067–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bashan Y (1986 b) Significance of timing and level of inoculation with rhizosphere bacteria on wheat plants. Soil Biol. Biochem. 18: 297–301.Google Scholar
  6. Bashan Y, Holguin G, Lifshitz R (1993) Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In: Methods in plant molecular biology and biotechnology. (Eds.) B.R. Glick. and J.E. Thompson. CRC Press, USA. pp. 331–345.Google Scholar
  7. Bashan Y, Levanony H (1990) Current status of Azospirillum inoculation technology: Azospirillum as a challenge for agriculture. Can. J. Microbiol. 36: 591–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bashan Y, Mitiku G, Ziv-Vecht O, Levanony H (1991) Estimation of minimal numbers Azospirillum brasilense using time-limited liquid enrichment combined enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Soil Biol. Biochem, 23: 135–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bashan Y, Levanony H, Ziv-Vecht O (1987) The fate of field-inoculated Azospirillum brasilense Cd in wheat rhizosphere during the growing season. Can. J. Microbiol. 33: 1074–1079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chapman HD, Pratt PF (1984) Analytical methods for soil, plants and water. University of California, Citrus Experimental Station, Riverside, USA. pp. 149–152. (In Spanish)Google Scholar
  11. De Coninck K, Horemans S, Randombage S, Vlassak K (1988) Occurrence and survival of Azospirillum spp. in temperate regions. Plant Soil 110: 213–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Döbereiner J, Baldani VLD (1979) Selective infection of maize roots by streptomycin-resistent Azospirillum lipoferum and other bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol. 25: 1264–1269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Döbereiner J, Marriel IE, Nery M (1976) Ecological distribution of Spirillum lipoferum Beijerinck. Can. J. Microbiol. 22: 1464–1473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foster RC (1988) Microenvironments of soil microorganisms. Biol, fertil. Soils 6: 189–203.Google Scholar
  15. Germida JJ (1986) Population dynamics of Azospirillum brasilense and its bacteriophage in soil. Plant Soil 90: 117–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harris JM, Lucas JA, Davey MR, Lethbridge G, Powel KA (1989) Establishment of Azospirillum inoculant in the rhizosphere of winter wheat. Soil Biol. Biochem. 21: 59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jackson ML (1976) Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. USA, p. 49.Google Scholar
  18. Jagnow G (1987) Inoculation of cereal crops and forage grasses with nitrogen-fixing rhizosphere bacteria: possible causes of success and failure with regard to yield response-a review. Z. Pflanzeneraehr. Dueng. Bodenkde. 150: 361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Krebs, C.J. (1978) Ecology: the experimental analysis of distribution and abundance. Harper and row, N.Y., USA. 753 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Levanony H, Bashan Y (1991) Enumeration and identification of rhizosphere bacteria by advanced immuno techniques. In: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria-progress and prospects, (Eds.) C. Keel, B. Koller and G. Défago. pp. 231–237. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, Zürich, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  21. Michiels K, Vanderleyden J, Van Gool A (1989) Azospirillum-plant root associations: a review. Biol. Fertil. Soils 8: 356–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nayak DN, Ladha JK, Watanabe I (1986) The fate of marker Azospirillum lipoferum inoculated into rice and its effect on growth, yield and N2 fixation of plants studied by acetylene reduction, 15N2 feeding and 15N dilution techniques. Biol. Fertil. Soils 2: 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Puente M-E, Bashan Y (1993) Effect of inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense strains on the germination and seedlings growth of the giant columnar cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei). Symbiosis 15: 49–60.Google Scholar
  24. Royce CF, Jr (1980) An introduction to sedimentary analysis. Arizona State University, pp. 180–202.Google Scholar
  25. Sadasivam KV, Negi M, Tilak KVBR (1986) Survival of Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter chroococcum in organic-amended soil-based carriers. Zentralbl. Mikrobiol. 141: 567–570Google Scholar
  26. Shawky BT (1989) Studies on the occurrence of asymbiotic nitrogen-fixing Azospirillum species in the soils and rhizosphere of some plants in Egypt. Zentralbl. Mikrobiol. 144: 581–594.Google Scholar
  27. Smith RL, Schank SC, Milam JR, Baltensperger AA (1984) Responses of Sorghum and Pennisetum species to the N2-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47: 1331–1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Vandenhove H, Merckx R, van Steenbergen M, Vlassak K (1993) Microcalorimetric characterization, physiological stages and survival ability of Azospirillum brasilense. Soil Biol. Biochem. 25: 513–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. van Elsas JD (1992) Environmental pressure imposed on GEMMOS in soil. In The release of Genetically modified microorganisms, (eds.) DES Stewart-Tull and M. Sussman, Plenum Press, NY. pp. 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. van Elsas JD, van Overbeek LS (1993) bacterial responses to soil stimuli. In Starvation in bacteria (ed.) S. Kjelleberg, Plenum Press, N.Y. pp. 55–79.Google Scholar
  31. Volonteri HJ (1983) [Ciencia del suelos. Revista de la Asociación Argentina de la Ciencia del Suelo]. 1: 98–99 (in Spanish).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoav Bashan
    • 1
  • M. Esther Puente
    • 1
  • M. Nieves Rodriguez-Mendoza
    • 2
  • Gina Holguin
    • 1
  • Gerardo Toledo
    • 1
  • Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato
    • 2
  • Sergio Pedrin
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyThe Center for Biological Research (CIB)La PazMexico
  2. 2.Institute of Natural ResourcesColegio de PostgraduadosMontecillo, Edo. de MexicoMexico
  3. 3.Department of Marine ResourcesThe Center for Biological Research (CIB)La PazMexico

Personalised recommendations