Role of Complement in HIV and SIV Pathogenesis and Immunity

  • D. C. Montefiori
Conference paper

Abstract

The complement system is comprised of a group of proteins and receptors that mediate inflammation and play an important role in phagocytosis and lysis of microorganisms (Muller-Eberhard 1988). To defend against virus infection, activated fragments of complement component C3 (i.e., C3b, C3dg, C3d) become deposited on the virus surface, which then target the virus for clearance through the mononuclear phagocytic system (Frank and Fries 1991). Alternatively, complement activation may lead to assembly of the membrane attack complex (MAC) of complement on the virus surface, causing virus neutralization by lysis (Hirsch 1982). Complement may be directly activated by surface epitopes that impair the ability of factor H to negatively control amplification of the alternative complement pathway through C3b,Bb convertase (Fearon 1978; Pangburn et al. 1980). This type of complement activation can be blocked by sialylation of carbohydrate moieties found on the virus surface (Fearon 1978). Complement may also be activated by the Fc region of antibodies bound to the virus surface (Schumaker et al. 1976).

Keywords

Lymphoma Influenza Oligosaccharide Peritonitis Encephalitis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allan JS, Coligan JE, Barin F, McLane MF, Sodroski JG, Rosen CA, Haseltine WA, Lee TH, Essex M (1985) Major glycoprotein antigens that induce antibodies in AIDS patients are encoded by HTLV-III. Science 228:1091–1094PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arthur LO, Bess JW, Sowder RC, Benveniste RE, Mann DL, Chermann J-C, Henderson LE (1991) Cellular proteins bound to immunodeficiency viruses: implications for pathogenesis and vaccines. Science 258:1935–1938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banapour B, Sernatinger J, Levy JA (1986) The AIDS-associated retrovirus is not sensitive to lysis or inactivation by human serum. Virology 152:268–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bart KJ, Lin KF-YC (1990) Vaccine-preventable disease and immunization in the developing world. Pediatr Clin North Am 37:735–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bender BS, Bohnsack JF, Sourlis SH, Frank MM, Quinn TC (1987) Demonstration of defective C3-receptor-mediated clearance by the reticuloendothelial system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Clin Invest 79: 715–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beral V, Peterman T, Berkelman R, Jaffe H (1991) AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet 337:805–809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bohnsack JF, Cooper NR (1988) CR2 ligands modulate human B cell activation. J Immunol 141:2569–2576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bolognesi DP (1989) Do antibodies enhance the infection of cells by HIV? Nature 340:431–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boyer V, Desgranges C, Trabaud M-A, Fischer E, Kazatchkine MD (1991) Complement mediates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of a human T cell line in a CD4- and antibody-independent fashion. J Exp Med 173:1151–1158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyer V, Delibrias C, Noraz N, Fischer E, Kazatchkine MD, Desgranges C (1992) Complement receptor type 2 mediates infection of the human CD4-negative Raji B-cell line with opsonized HIV. Scand J Immunol 36:879–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burke SB (1992) Human HIV vaccine trials: does antibody-dependent enhancement pose a genuine risk? Perspect Biol Med 35:511–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cameron PU, Freudenthal PS, Barker JM, Gezelter S, Inaba K, Steinman RM (1992) Dendritic cells exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transmit a vigorous cytopathic infection to CD4 + T cells. Science 257:383–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cao J, Bergeron L, Helseth E, Thali M, Repke H, Sodroski J (1993) Effects of amino acid changes in the extracellular domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 envelope glycoprotein. J Virol 67:2747–2755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Carter RH, Fearon DT (1989) Polymeric C3dg primes human lymphocytes for proliferation induced by anti-IgM. J Immunol 143:1755–1760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carter RH, Spycher MO, Ng YC, Hoffman R, Fearon DT (1988) Synergistic interaction between complement receptor type 2 and membrane IgM on B lymphocytes. J Immunol 141:457–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen W-R, Tesh RB, Rico-Hesse R (1990) Genetic variation of Japanese encephalitis virus in nature. J Gen Virol 71:2915–2922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen JHM, Aubry JP, Revillard JP, Banchereau J, Kazatchkine MD (1989) Human T lymphocytes expressing the C3b/C4b complement receptor type one (CR1, CD35) belong to Fc gamma receptor-positive CD4-positive T cells. Cell Immunol 121: 383–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cole JL, Housley GA Jr, Dykman TR, MacDermott RP, Atkinson JP (1985) Identification of an additional class of C3-binding membrane proteins of human peripheral blood leukocytes and cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cranage MP, Polyanskaya N, McBride B, Cook N, Ashworth LAE, Dennis M, Baskerville A, Greenaway PJ, Corcoran T, Kitchen P, Rose J, Murphey-Corb M, Desrosiers RC, Stott EJ, Farrar GH (1993) Studies on the specificity of the vaccine effect elicited by inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9:13–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dalgleish AG, Beverley PCL, Clapham PR, Crawford DH, Greaves MF, Weiss RA (1984) The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. Nature 312:763–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davies A, Simmons DL, Hale G, Harrison RA, Tighe H, Lachman PL, Waldmann H (1989) CD59, an LY-6 like protein expressed in human lymphoid cells, regulates the action of the complement membrane attack complex on homologous cells. J Exp Med 170:637–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Desrosiers RC (1990) The simian immunodeficiency viruses. Annu Rev Immunol 8:557–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dolin R, Graham BS, Greenberg SB, Tacket CO, Belshe RB, Midthun K, Clements ML, Gorse GJ, Horgan BW, Atmar RL, Karzon DT, Bonnez W, Fernie BF, Montefìori DC, Stabilen DM, Smith GE, Koff WC, and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network (1991) The safety and immunogenicity of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recombinant gp160 candidate vaccine in humans. Ann Intern Med 114:119–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Earl PL, Doms RW, Moss B (1990) Oligomeric structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 648–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebenbichler CF, Thielens NM, Vornhagen R, Marschang P, Arlaud GJ, Dierich MP (1991) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activates the classical pathway of complement by direct C1 binding through specific sites in the transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. J Exp Med 174:1417–1424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Embretson J, Zupancic M, Ribas JL, Burke A, Racz P, Tenner-Racz K, Haase AT (1993) Massive covert infection of helper T lymphocytes and macrophages by HIV during the incubation period of AIDS. Nature 362:359–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fearon DT (1978) Regulation of membrane sialic acid of B1H-dependent decay-dissociation of amplification C3 convertase of the alternative complement pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:1971–1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fearon DT (1979) Regulation of the amplification of C3 convertase of human complement by an inhibitory protein isolated from the human erythrocyte membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5867–5871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fearon DT, Wong WW (1983) Complement ligand-receptor interactions that mediate biological responses. Annu Rev Immunol 1:243–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fischer E, Delibrias C, Kazatchkine MD (1991) Expression of CR2 (the C3dg/EBV receptor, CD21) on normal human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Immunology 146:865–869Google Scholar
  31. Fiscus SA, Folds JD, van der Horst CM (1993) Infectious immune complexes in HIV-1 infected patients. Viral Immunol 6:135–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Frank MM, Fries LF (1991) The role of complement in inflammation and phagocytosis. Immunol Today 12:322–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fries LF, Friedman HM, Cohen GH, Eisenberg RJ, Hammer CH, Frank MM (1986) Glycoprotein C of herpes simplex virus type 1 is an inhibitor of the complement cascade. J Immunol 137:1636–1640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Geyer H, Holschbach C, Hunsman C, Schneider J (1988) Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus: structures of oligosaccharides linked to the envelope glycoprotein gp120. J Biol Chem 263:11760–11768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gras GS, Dormont D (1991) Antibody-dependent and antibody-independent complement-mediated enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in a human, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-lymphocytic cell line. J Virol 65: 541–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gras G, Richard Y, Roques P, Olivier R, Dormont D (1993) Complement and virus- specific antibody-dependent infection of normal B lymphocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Blood 81:1808–1818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Halstead SB (1982) Immune enhancement of viral infection. Prog Allergy 31: 301–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Halstead SB, O’Rourke EJ (1977) Antibody enhanced dengue virus infection in primate leukocytes. Nature 265:739–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harada S, Yoshiyama H, Yamamoto N (1985) Effect of heat and fresh human serum on the infectivity of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III evaluated with new bioassay systems. J Clin Microbiol 22:908–911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hirsch RL (1982) The complement system: its importance in the host response to viral infection. Microbiol Rev 46:71–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hirsch RL, Wolinsky JS, Winkelstein JA (1986) Activation of the alternative complement pathway by mumps-infected cells: relationship to viral neuraminidase activity. Arch Virol 87:181–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ho DD, Neumann AU, Perelson AS, Chen W, Leonard JM, Markowitz M (1995) Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. Nature 373: 123–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hogg N (1988) The structure and function of Fc receptors. Immunol Today 9: 185–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoke CH, Nisalak A, Sangawhipa N, Jatanasen S, Laorakapongse T, Innis BL, Kotchasenee S-O, Gingrich JB, Latendresse J, Fukai K, Burke DS (1988) Protection against japanese encephalitis by inactivated vaccines. N Engl J Med 319: 608–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Holguin MH, Fredrick LR, Bernshaw NJ, Wilcox LA, Parker CJ (1989) Isolation and characterization of a membrane protein from normal human erythrocytes that inhibits reactive lysis of the erythrocytes of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. J Clin Invest 84:7–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Homsy J, Meyer M, Tateno M, Clarkson S, Levy JA (1989) The Fc and not CD4 receptor mediates antibody enhancement of HIV infection in human cells. Science 244:1357–1360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hortsmann RD (1992) Target recognition failure by the nonspecific defense system: surface constituents of pathogens interfere with the alternate pathway of complement activation. Infect Immun 60:721–727Google Scholar
  48. Inada Y, Lange M, McKinley GF, Sonnabend JA, Fonville TW, Kanemitsu T, Tanaka M, Clark WS (1986) Hematologic correlates and the role of erythrocyte CR1 (C#b receptors) in the development of AIDS. AIDS Res 2:235–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Issel CJ, Horohov DW, Lea DF, Adams WV Jr, Hagius SD, McManus JM, Allison AC, Montelaro RC (1992) Efficacy of inactivated whole-virus and subunit vaccines in preventing infection and disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus. J Virol 66:3398–3408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Johnson PR, Montefìori DC, Goldstein S, Hamm TE, Zhou J, Kitov S, Haigwood NL, Misher L, London WT, Gerin JL, Allison A, Purcell RH, Chanock RM, Hirsch VM (1992) Inactivated whole-virus vaccine derived from a proviral DNA clone of simian immunodeficiency virus induces high levels of neutralizing antibodies and confers protection against heterologous challenge. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 2175–2179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Joling P, Bakker LJ, Van Strijp JAG, Meerloo T, de Graaf L, Dekker MEM, Goudsmit J, Verhoef J, Schuurman H-J (1993) Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 to follicular dendritic cells in vitro is complement dependent. J Immunol 150:1065–1073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jouault T, Chapuis F, Olivier R, Parravicini C, Bahraoui E, Gluckman J-C (1989) HIV infection of monocytic cells: role of antibody-mediated virus binding to Fc- gamma receptors. AIDS 3:125–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jouvin M-H, Rozenbaum W, Russo R, Kazatchkine MD (1987) Decreased expression of the C3b/C4b complement receptor (CR1) in AIDS and AIDS-related syndromes correlates with clinical subpopulations of patients with HIV infection. AIDS 1: 89–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. June RA, Schade SZ, Bankowski MJ, Kuhns M, McNamara A, Lint TF, Landay AL, Spear GT (1991) Complement and antibody mediate enhancement of HIV infection by increasing virus binding and provirus formation. AIDS 5:269–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. June RA, Landay AL, Stefanik K, Lint TF, Spear GT (1992) Phenotypic analysis of complement receptor 2+ T lymphocytes: reduced expression on CD4 + cells in HIV-infected persons. Immunology 75:59–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kalyanaraman VS, Cabradilla CD, Getchell JP, Narayana R, Braff EH, Chermann J-C, Barre-Sinnoussi F, Montagnier L, Spira TJ, Kaplan J, Fishbein D, Jaffe HW, Curran JW, Francis DP (1984) Antibodies to the core protein of lymphadenopathy virus (LAV) in patients with AIDS. Science 225:321–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kaminsky LS, McHugh T, Stites D, Volberding P, Henle G, Henle W, Levy JA (1985) High prevalence of antibodies to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)- associated retrovirus (ARV) in AIDS and related conditions but not in other disease states. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:5535–5539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kinoshita T (1991) Biology of complement: the overture. Immunol Today 12:291–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kiprov DD, Sheppard HW, Hanson CV (1994) Alloimmunization to prevent AIDS? Science 263:737–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Klatzmann D, Champagne E, Chamaret S, Gruest J, Guetard D, Hercend T, Gluckman J-C, Montagnier L (1984) T-lymphocyte T4 molecule behaves as the receptor for human retrovirus LAV. Nature 312:767–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kliks SC, Nisalak A, Brandt WE, Wahl L, Burke DS (1989) Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus growth in human monocytes as a risk factor for dengue hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40:444–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kotwal GJ, Isaacs SN, McKenzie R, Frank MM, Moss B (1990) Inhibition of the complement cascade by the major secretory protein of vaccinia virus. Science 250: 827–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kowalski M, Potz J, Basiripour L, Dorfman T, Goh WC, Terwilliger E, Dayton A, Rosen C, Haseltine W, Sodroski J (1987) Functional regions of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Science 237:1351–1355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Langlois AJ, Weinhold KJ, Matthews TJ, Greenberg ML Bolognesi DP (1992a) The ability of certain SIV vaccines to provoke reactions against normal cells. Science 255:292–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Langlois AJ, Weinhold KJ, Matthews TJ, Greenberg ML, Bolognesi DP (1992b) Detection of anti-human cell antibodies in sera from macaques immunized with whole inactivated virus. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 8:1641–1652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Larcher C, Schultz TF, Hofbauer J, Hengster P, Romani N, Wachter H, Dierich MP (1990) Expression of the C3d/EBV receptor and of other cell membrane surface markers is altered upon HIV-1 infection of myeloid, T, and B cells. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 3:103–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lasky LA, Nakamura G, Smith DH, Fennie C, Shimasaki C, Patzer E, Berman P, Gregory T, Capon DJ (1987) Delineation of a region of the human immunodeficiency virus gp120 glycoprotein critical for interaction with the CD4 receptor. Cell 50:975–985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. LeGrand R, Vasli B, Vogt G, Roques P, Humbert M, Dormont D, Aubertin AM (1992) AIDS vaccine developments. Nature 355:684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lyerly HK, Matthews TJ, Langlois AJ, Bolognesi DP, Weinhold, KJ (1987) Human T- cell lymphotropic virus IIIB glycoprotein (gp120) bound to CD4 determinants on normal lymphocytes and expressed by infected cells serves as targets for immune attack. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:4601–4605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marcus R, Kay K, Mann JM (1989) Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type (HIV) in healthcare settings worlwide. Bull WHO 67:577–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Marschang P, Gurtler L, Totsch M, Thielens NM, Arlaud GJ, Hittmair A, Katinger H, Dierich MP (1993) HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates differ in their ability to activate the complement system on the surface of infected cells. AIDS 7:903–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Marschang P, Sodroski J, Wurzner R, Dierich MP (1995) Decay-accelerating factor (CD55) protects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from inactivation by human complement. Eur J Immunol 25:285–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Martinez-Maza O, Crabb E, Mitsuyasu RT, Fahey JL, Giorgi JV (1987) Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with an in vivo increase in B lymphocyte activation and immaturity. J Immunol 138:3720–3727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Mascola JR, Matthieson BJ, Zack PM, Walker MC, Halstead SB, Burke DS (1993) Summary report: workshop on the potential risks of antibody-dependent enhancement in human HIV vaccine trials. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9:1175–1184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Matsumoto AK, Kopicky-Burd J, Carter RH, Tuveson DA, Tedder TF, Fearon DT (1991) Intersection of the complement and immune systems: a signal transduction complex of the B lymphocyte-containing complement receptor type 2 and CD19. J Exp Med 173:55–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McHugh TM, Stites DP, Busch MP, Krowka JF, Stricker RB, Hollander H (1988) Relation of circulating levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen, antibody to p24, and HIV-containing immune complexes in HIV-infected patients. J Infect Dis 158:1088–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McSharry JJ, Pickering RJ, Caliguiri LA (1981) Activation of the alternate complement pathway by enveloped viruses containing limited amounts of sialic acid. Virology 114:507–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Meerloo T, Sheikh MA, Bloem AC, de Ronde A, Schutten M, van Els CAC, Roholl PJM, Goudsmit J, Schuurman H-J (1993) Host cell membrane proteins on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 after in vitro infection of H9 cells and blood mononuclear cells. An immuno-electron microscopic study. J Gen Virol 74: 129–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Melchers F, Erdei A, Schultz T, Dierich MP (1985) Growth control of activated, synchronized murine B cells by the C3d fragment of human complement. Nature 317: 264–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mitchell WM, Torres J, Johnson PR, Hirsch V, Yilma T, Gardner MB, Robinson WE Jr (1995) Antibodies to the putative SIV infection-enhancing domain diminish beneficial effects of an SIV gp160 vaccine in rhesus macaques. AIDS 9:27–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mizouchi T, Spellman MW, Larkin M, Solomon J, Basa LJ, Feizi T (1988) Carbohydrate structures of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) recombinant envelope glycoprotein gp120 produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Biochem J 254:599–605Google Scholar
  82. Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Mitchell WM (1989) Antibody-independent, complement-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection by mannosidase I and II inhibitors. Antiviral Res 11:137–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Montefiori DC, Murphey-Corb M, Desrosiers RC, Daniel MD (1990 a) Complementmediated, infection-enhancing antibodies in plasma from vaccinated macaques before and after inoculation with live simian immunodeficiency virus. J Virol 64: 5223–5225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Hirsch VM, Modliszewski A, Mitchell WM, Johnson PR (1990b) Antibody-dependent enhancement of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in vitro by plasma from SIV-infected rhesus macaques. J Virol 64:113–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Montefiori DC, Robinson WE Jr, Hirsch VM, Modliszewski A, Mitchell WM, Johnson PR (1990c) Antibody-dependent enhancement of simian immunodeficiency virus infection: complement pathway required and cross reactivity between macaque and sooty mangabey isolates. J Med Primatol 19:269–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Montefiori DC, Robinson WE, Modliszewski A, Mitchell WM (1990d) Complement- mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection reverses the anti-HIV-1 activity of castanospermine. Ann N Y Acad Sci 616:572–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Montefiori DC, Hirsch VM, Johnson PR (1991a) AIDS response. Nature 354:440–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Montefiori DC, Lefkowitz LB, Keller RE, Holmberg V, Sandstrom E, Phair JP, and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Group (1991b) Absence of a clinical correlation for complement-mediated, infection-enhancing antibodies in plasma and sera from HIV-1 infected persons. AIDS 5:513–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Montefìori DC, Graham BS, Kliks S, Wright PF, and the NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Nework (1992 a) Serum antibodies to HIV-1 in recombinant vaccinia virus recipients boosted with purified recombinant gp160. J Clin Immunol 12: 429–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Montefìori DC, Zhou J, Shaff DI (1992 b) CD4-independent binding of HIV-1 to the B lymphocyte receptor CR2 (CD21) in the presence of complement and antibody. Clin Exp Immunol 90:383–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Montefiori DC, Cornell RJ, Zhou JY, Zhou JT, Hirsch VM, Johnson PR (1994a) Complement control proteins, CD46, CD55, and CD59, as common surface constituents of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses and possible targets for vaccine protection. Virology 205:82–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Montefiori DC, Graham BS, Zhou JY, Zhou JT, Ahearn JM (1994 b) Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to the C3b/C4b receptor, CR1 (CD35), and red blood cells in the presence of envelope-specific antibodies and complement. J Infect Dis 170:429–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Montefiori DC, Stewart K, Ahearn JM, Zhou JT, Zhou JY (1993) Complement-mediated binding of naturally glycosylated and glycosylation-modifìed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to human CR2 (CD21). J Virol 67:2699–2706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Montefiori DC, Reimann KA, Letvin NL, Zhou J, Hu S-L (1995) Infection-enhancing antibodies in the SIV/macaque model of acute primary infection and vaccine protection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 11:963–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Montefiori DC (1995) New insights into the role of host cell proteins in antiviral vaccine protection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses (in press)Google Scholar
  96. Montefiori DC, Pantaleo G, Fink LM, Zhou JT, Zhou JY, Bilska M, Miralles GD, Fauci AS (1996) Neutralizing and infection-enhancing antibody responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in long term nonprogressors. J Infect Dis (in press)Google Scholar
  97. Morrow WJW, Wharton M, Stricker RB, Levy JA (1986) Circulating immune complexes in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome contain the AIDS- associated retrovirus. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 40:515–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Muller-Eberhard H (1988) Molecular organization and function of the complement system. Annu Rev Biochem 57:321–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nicholson-Weller A, Burge J, Fearon DT, Weller PF, Austen KF (1982) Isolation of a human erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein with decay-accelerating activity for C3 convertases of the complement system. J Immunol 129:184–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Ojo-Amaize EA, Nishanian P, Keith DE Jr, Houghton RL, Heitjan DF, Fahey JL, Giorgi JV (1987) Antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus in human sera induce cell-mediated lysis of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells. J Immunol 139:2458–2463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Okada H, Nagami Y, Takahashi K, Okada N, Hideshima T, Takizawa H, Kondo J (1989) 20 KDa homologous restriction factor of complement resembles T cell activating protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 162:1553–1559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Orentas RJ, Hildreth JEK (1993) Association of host cell surface adhesion receptors and other membrane proteins with HIV and SIV. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9: 1157–1165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Osterhaus A, de Vries P, Heeney J (1992) AIDS vaccine developments. Nature 355: 684–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pangburn M, Morrison D, Schreiber R, Muller-Eberhard H (1980) Activation of the alternative complement pathway: recognition of surface structures on activators by bound C3b. J Immunol 124:977–982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Perricone R, Fontana L, De Carolis C, Carini C, Sirianni MC, Aiuti F (1987) Evidence for activation of complement in patients with AIDS related complex (ARC) and/or lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS). Clin Exp Immunol 70:500–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Piatak M, Saag MS, Yang LC, Clark SJ, Kappes JC, Luk K-C, Hahn BH, Shaw GM, Lifson JD (1993) High levels of HIV-1 in plasma during all stages of infection determined by competitive PCR. Science 259:1749–1754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Porterfield JS (1986) Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infectivity. Adv Virus Res 31:335–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Post PR, Santos CD, Carvalho R, Cruz ACR, Rice CM, Galler R (1992) Heterogeneity in envelope protein sequences and N-linked glycosylation among yellow fever virus vaccine strains. Virology 188:160–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Reimann KA, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Montefiori DC, Yasutomi Y, Lin W, Ransil BJ, Letvin NL (1994) Immunopathogenic events in acute infection of rhesus monkeys with simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques. J Virol 68:2362–2370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Reisinger EC, Vogetseder W, Berzow D, Kofler D, Bitterlich G, Lehr HA, Wachter H, Dierich MP (1990) Complement-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection of the monoblastoid cell line U937. AIDS 4:961–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Reynes M, Aubert JP, Cohen JHM, Audouin J, Tricottet V, Diebold J, Kazatchkine MD (1985) Human follicular dendritic cells express CR1, CR2, and CR3 complement receptor antigens. J Immunol 135:2687–2694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Robinson WE, Montefiori DC, Mitchell WM (1988) Antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Lancet 1:790–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Robinson WE, Montefiori DC, Gillespie DH, Mitchell WM (1989) Complement- mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection in vitro is characterized by increased protein and RNA synthesis and infectious virus release. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2:33–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Robinson WE, Kawamura T, Lake D, Masuho Y, Mitchell WM, Hersh EM (1990a) Antibodies to the primary immunodominant domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) glycoprotein gp41 enhance HIV-1 infection in vitro. J Virol 64:5301–5305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Robinson WE, Montefiori DC, Mitchell WM (1990 b) Complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection requires CD4 and complement receptors. Virology 175:600–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Robinson WE, Gorny MW, Xu J-Y, Mitchell WM, Zolla-Pazner S (1991) Two immunodominant domains of gp41 bind antibodies which enhance human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in vitro. J Virol 65:4169–4176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Saifuddin M, Parker CJ, Peeples ME, Gorny MK, Zolla-Pazner S, Ghassemi M, Rooney IA, Atkinson JP, Spear GT (1995) Role of virion-associated glycosylphos- phatidylinositol-linked proteins CD55 and CD59 in complement resistance of cell line-derived and primary isolates of HIV-1. J Exp Med 182:501–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sarngadharan MG, Popovic M, Bruch L, Schupbach J, Gallo RC (1984) Antibodies reactive with human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-III) in the serum of patients with AIDS. Science 224:506–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Schonermark S, Rauterberg EW, Shin ML, Loke S, Roelcke D, Hansch GM (1986) Homologous species restriction in lysis of human erythrocytes: a membrane- derived protein with C8-binding capacity functions as an inhibitor. J Immunol 136:1772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Schumaker V, Calcott M, Spiegelberg H, Muller-Eberhard H (1976) Ultracentrifuge studies of the binding of IgG of different subclasses to the C1q subunit of the first component of complement. Biochemistry 15:5175–5181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Senaldi G, Peakman M, McManus T, Davies ET, Tee DEH, Vergani D (1990) Activation of the complement system in human immunodeficiency virus infection: relevance of the classical pathway to pathogenesis and disease severity. J Infect Dis 162:1227–1232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Serraino D, Salamina G, Franceschi S, Dubois D, La Vecchia C, Brunet JB, Ancelle- Park RA (1992) The epidemiology of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the World Health Organization European region. Br J Cancer 66:912–916PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shadduck PP, Weinberg JB, Haney AF, Bartlett JA, Langlois AJ, Bolognesi DP, Matthews TJ (1991) Lack of enhancing effect of human anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody on HIV-1 infection of human blood monocytes and peritoneal macrophages. J Virol 65:4309–4316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Shearer GM, Clerici M, Dalgleish A (1993) Alloimmunization as an AIDS vaccine? Science 262:161–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Shirai A, Cosentino M, Leitman-Klinman SF, Klinman DM (1992) Human immunodeficiency virus infection induces both polyclonal and virus-specific B cell activation. J Clin Invest 89:561–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Smiley ML, Friedman HM (1985) Binding of complement component C3b to glycoprotein C is modulated by sialic acid on herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cells. J Virol 55:857–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Soelder BM, Schultz TF, Hengster P, Lower J, Larcher C, Bitterlich G, Kurth R, Wachter H, Dierich MP (1989 a) HIV and HIV-infected cells differentially activate the human complement system independently of antibody. Immunol Lett 22: 135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Soelder BM, Reisinger EC, Koefler D, Bitterlich G, Wachter H, Dierich MP (1989b) Complement receptors: another port of entry for HIV. Lancet 2:271–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Spear GT, Jiang H, Sullivan BL, Gewurz H, Landay AL, Lint TF (1991) Direct binding of complement component C1q to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T lymphoptropic virus-I (HTLV-I) coinfected cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 7:579–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Spear GT, Takefman DM, Sullivan BL, Landay AL, Jennings MB, Carlson JR (1993) Anti-cellular antibodies in sera from vaccinated macaques can induce complement-mediated virolysis of human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus. Virology 195:475–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Spiegel H, Herbst H, Niedobitek G, Foss H-D, Stein H (1992) Follicular dendritic cells are a major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in lymphoid tissues facilitating infection of CD4 + T-helper cells. Am J Pathol 140:15–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Stoiber H, Thielens NM, Ebenbichler C, Arlaud GJ, Dierich MP (1994) The envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 gp120 and human complement protein C1q bind to the same peptides derived from three different regions of gp41, the transmembrane glycoprotein of HIV-1, and share antigenic homology. Eur J Immunol 24:294–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Stott EJ (1991) Anti-cell antibody in macaques. Nature 353:393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sugita Y, Nakano Y, Tomita M (1988) Isolation from erythrocytes of a new membrane protein which inhibits the formation of complement transmembrane chanels. J Biochem (Tokyo) 104:633–637Google Scholar
  135. Susal C, Kirschfink M, Kropelin M, Daniel V, Opelz G (1994) Complement activation by recombinant HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. J Immunol 152:6028–6034PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Takeda A, Tuazon CU, Ennis FA (1988) Antibody-enhanced infection by HIV-1 via Fc receptor-mediated entry. Science 242:580–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Tausk FA, McCutchan JA, Spechko P, Schreiber RD, Gigli I (1986) Altered erythrocyte C3b receptor expression, immune complexes, and complement activation in homosexual men in varying risk groups for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Clin Invest 78:977–982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Theiler M, Smith HH (1937) The use of yellow fever virus modified by in vitro cultivation for human immunization. J Exp Med 65:787–800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Thieblemont N, Haeffner-Cavaillon N, Ledur A, L’Age-Stehr J, Ziegler-Heitbrock HWL Kazatchkine MD (1993a) CR1 (CD35) and CR3 (CD11b/CD18) mediate infection of human monocytes and monocytic cell lines with complement-opsonized HIV independently of CD4. Clin Exp Immunol 92:106–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Thieblemont N, Haeffner-Cavaillon N, Weiss L, Maillet F, Kazatchkine MD (1993b) Complement activation by gp160 glycoprotein of HIV-1. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9:229–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Thielens NM, Bally IM, Ebenbichler CF, Dierich, MP, Arlaud GJ (1993) Further characterization of the interaction between the C1q subcomponent of human C1 and the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein gp41 of HIV-1. J Immunol 151: 6583–6592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Toth FD, Mosborg-Petersen P, Kiss J, Aboagye-Mathiesen G, Zdravkovic M, Hager H, Aranyosi J, Lampe L, Ebbesen P (1994) Antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection in human term syncytiotrophoblast cells cultured in vitro. Clin Exp Immunol 96:389–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tremblay M, Meloche S, Sekaly RP, Wainberg MA (1990) Complement receptor type 2 mediates enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in Epstein-Barr virus-carrying B cells. J Exp Med 171:1791–1796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tsokos GC, Lambris JD, Finkelman FD, Anastassiou ED, June CH (1990) Monovalent ligands of complement receptor 2 inhibit whereas polyvalent ligands enhance anti-Ig-induced human B cell intracytoplasmic free calcium concentration. J Immunol 144:1640–1645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Veronese FM, DeVico AL, Copeland TD, Droszland S, Gallo RC, Sarngadharan MG (1985) Characterization of gp41 as the transmembrane protein coded by the HTLV-III/LAV envelope gene. Science 229:1402–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wang SZ-S, Rushlow KE, Issel CJ, Cook RF, Cook SJ, Raabe ML, Chong Y-H, Costa L, Montelaro RC (1994) Enhancement of EIAV replication and disease by immunization with a baculovirus-expressed recombinant envelope surface glycoprotein. Virology 199:247–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wei X, Ghosh SK, Taylor ME, Johnson VA, Emini EA, Deutsch P, Lifson, JD, Bonhoeffer S, Nowak MA, Hahn BH, Saag MS, Shaw GM (1995) Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Nature 373:117–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Weiss CD, Levy JA, White JM (1990) Oligomeric organization of gp120 on infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles. J Virol 64:5674–5677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Wilson BS, Platt JL, Kay NE (1985) Monoclonal antibodies to the 140,000 mol wt glycoprotein of B lymphocyte membranes (CR2 receptor) initiates proliferation of B cells in vitro. Blood 66:824–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Yefenof E, Asjo B, Klein E (1991) Alternative complement pathway activation by HIV infected cells: C3 fixation does not lead to complement lysis but enhances NK sensitivity. Int Immunol 3:395–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Montefiori

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations