Histocompatibility Reactions in Invertebrates

  • D. A. Raftos
Part of the Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology book series (COMPARATIVE, volume 24)

Abstract

There are compelling reasons to believe that the capacity of cells to discriminate between “self” and “non-self” is shared by all metazoans. The evolution of multicellular organisms must have been accompanied by the development of discriminative cellular recognition systems. Accurate discrimination is a fundamental requisite of systems that regulate the development and differentiation of clonally derived cells to produce cohesive tissues and organs.

Keywords

Migration Depression Electrophoresis Sponge Hull 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bailey S, Miller BJ, Cooper EL (1971) Transplantation immunity in annelids. II. Adoptive transfer of the xenograft reaction. Immunology 21: 81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bancroft FW (1903) Variation and fusion of colonies in compound ascidians. Proc Calif Acad Sci 3: 137–186Google Scholar
  3. Barnes RD (1980) Invertebrate zoology. Holt-Saunders, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  4. Berrill NJ (1941) The development of the bud in Botryllus. Biol Bull 80: 169–184Google Scholar
  5. Berrill NJ (1950) The Tunicata. The Ray Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Berrill NJ (1951) Regeneration and budding in tunicates. Biol Rev 27: 456–475Google Scholar
  7. Berrill NJ (1955) The origin of vertebrates. Oxford Univ Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertheussen K (1979) The cytotoxic reaction in allogeneic mixtures of echinoid phagocytes. Exp Cell Res 120: 373–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bierne J (1985) Histocompatibility in nemerteans: fates of multiparental Lineus constructed by grafting of pieces from many donors. Am Zool 25: 137–144Google Scholar
  10. Bigger CH (1980) Interspecific and intraspecific acrorhagial aggressive behaviour among sea anemones: a recognition of self and not-self. Biol Bull 159: 117–134Google Scholar
  11. Bigger CH, Runyan R (1979) An in situ demonstration of self-recognition in gorgonians. Dev Comp Immunol 3: 591–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bigger CH, Hildemann WH, Jokiel PL, Johnston IS (1981) Afferent sensitization and efferent cytotoxicity in allogeneic tissue responses of the marine sponge Callyspongia diffusa. Transplantation 31: 461–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bigger CH, Jokiel PL, Hildemann WH, Johnston IS (1982) Characterization of alloimmune memory in sponges. J Immunol 129: 1570–1572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bigger CH, Jokiel PL, Hildemann (1983) Cytotoxic transplantation immunity in the sponge Toxadocia violacea. Transplantation 35: 239–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Burnet FM (1971) Self recognition in colonial marine forms and flowering plants in relation to the evolution of immunity. Nature 232: 21Google Scholar
  16. Burnet FM (1974) Invertebrate precursors to immune response. In: Cooper EL (ed) Contemporary topics in immunobiology, vol 4. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Buscema M, Van de Vyver G (1983) Variability of allograft rejection processes in Axinella verrucosa. Dev Comp Immunol 7: 613–616Google Scholar
  18. Buscema M, Van de Vyver G (1984a) Cellular aspects of alloimmune reactions in sponges of the genus Axinella I. Axinella polypoides J Exp Zool 229: 7–17Google Scholar
  19. Buscema M, Van de Vyver G (1984b) Cellular aspects of alloimmune reactions in sponges of the genus, Axinella II: Axinella verrucosa and Axinella damicornis. J Exp Zool 229: 19–32Google Scholar
  20. Buscema M, Van de Vyver G (1984c) Allogeneic recognition in sponges: development structure, and nature of the non-merging front in Ephydatia fluviatilis. J Morphol 181: 297–303Google Scholar
  21. Buscema M, Van de Vyver G (1985) Cytotoxic rejection of xenografts between marine sponges. J Exp Zool 235: 297–308Google Scholar
  22. Buss LW (1982) Somatic cell parasitism and the evolution of somatic tissue compatibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 5337–5344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Buss LW, Green DR (1985) Histocompatibility in vertebrates: the relic hypothesis. Dev Comp Immunol 9: 198–201Google Scholar
  24. Buss LW, McFadden GS, Green DR (1984) Biology of hydractinid hydroids. 2. Histocompatibility effector system/competitive mechanism mediated by nematocyst discharge. Biol Bull 167: 139–158Google Scholar
  25. Buss LW, Moore JL, Green DR (1985) Autoreactivity and self tolerance in invertebrates. Nature 313: 400–402Google Scholar
  26. Carton Y (1976) Isogenic, allogenic and xenogenic transplants in an insect species. Transplantation 21: 17–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cheng TC (1970) Immunity in molluscs with special reference to reactions to transplants. Transplant Proc 2: 226–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Coffaro KA, Hinegardner RT (1977) Immune response in the sea urchin, Lytechinus pictus. Science 197: 1389–1390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cooper EL (1965a) Rejection of body wall xenografts exchanged between Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia foetida. Am Zool 5: 169–178Google Scholar
  30. Cooper EL (1965b) A method of tissue grafting in the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris. Am Zool 5: 233Google Scholar
  31. Cooper EL (1968) Transplantation immunity in annelids. I. Rejection of xenografts exchanged between Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia foetida. Transplantation 6: 322–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cooper EL (1969a) Specific tissue graft rejection in earthworms. Science 166: 1414–1415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cooper EL (1969b) Chronic allograft rejection in Lumbricus terrestris. J Exp Zool 171: 69–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cooper EL (1970) Transplantation immunity in helminths and annelids. Transplant Proc 2: 216–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cooper EL (1975) Characteristics of cell-mediated immunity and memory in annelids. Adv Exp Med Biol 64: 127–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cooper EL (1976) Comparative immunology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  37. Cooper EL (1986) Evolution of histocompatibility. In: Brehelin M (ed) Immunity in invertebrates. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Cooper EL, Roch P (1986) Second-set allograft responses in the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris: kinetics and characteristics. Transplantation 41: 514–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Curtis ASG (1979) Individuality and graft rejection in sponges. In: Larwood G, Rosen BR (eds) Biology and systematics of colonial organisms. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Curtis ASG, Kerr J, Knowlton N (1982) Graft rejection in sponges. Transplantation 33: 127–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. DuPasquier L (1974) The genetic control of histocompatibility reactions: phylogenetic aspects. Arch Biol 85: 91–103Google Scholar
  42. Duprat P (1967) Etude de la prise et du maintien d’un greffon de paroi du corps chez le lombricien, Eisenia foetida. Ann Inst Pasteur 113: 867–881Google Scholar
  43. Duprat-Chateaureynaud P (1970) Specific allograft reactions in Eisenia foetida. Transplant Proc 2: 222–225Google Scholar
  44. Ephrussi B, Beadle GW (1937) A technique for transplantation for Drosophila. Am Nat 70: 218–225Google Scholar
  45. Eppensteiner JM, Karp RD (1989) The effect of gamma radiation on the xenograft response in the American cockroach. J Insect Physiol 35: 81–93Google Scholar
  46. Ertman SC, Davenport D (1981) Tentacular nematocyte discharge and self recognition in Anthopleura elegentissima ( Brandt ). Biol Bull 161: 366–370Google Scholar
  47. Evans CW, Curtis ASG (1980) Graft rejection and cytotoxicity in marine sponges. In: Manning MJ (ed) Phylogeny of immunological memory. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Evans CW, Kerr J, Curtis ASG (1980) Graft rejection and immune memory in sponges. In: Manning M.J. (ed) Phylogeny of immunological memory. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  49. Field CG, Olsen GJ, Lane DJ, Glovannoni SJ, Ghiselin MT, Raff EC, Pace NR, Raff RA (1988) Molecular phylogeny of the animal kingdom. Science 239: 748–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Francis L (1973a) Clone specific segregation in the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and some related anemones. Biol Bull 144: 64–72Google Scholar
  51. Francis L (1973b) Intraspecific aggression and its effect on the distribution of Anthopleura elegantissima and some related sea anemones. Biol Bull 144: 73–92Google Scholar
  52. Francis L (1976) Social organization within clones of the sea anemone, Anthopleura elegantissima. Biol Bull 150: 361–376Google Scholar
  53. Francis L (1988) Cloning and aggression among anemones (Coelenterata; Actinaria) of the rocky shore. Biol Bull 174: 241–253Google Scholar
  54. Fuke MT (1980) Contact reactions between xenogeneic or allogeneic coelomic cells of solitary ascidians. Biol Bull 158: 304–315Google Scholar
  55. Fuke MT (1983) Self and non-self recognition between gametes of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. Wilhelm Roux’s Arch Dev Biol. 192: 347–352Google Scholar
  56. Fuke MT, Nakamura I (1985) Pattern of cellular alloreactivity of the solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, in relation to genetic control. Biol Bull 169: 631–637Google Scholar
  57. Fuke MT, Numakunai T (1982) Allogenic cellular reactions between intraspecific variants of the solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi. Dev Comp Immunol 6: 253–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Garstang W (1928) The morphology of Tunicata. J Microsc Sci 72: 51–187Google Scholar
  59. George JF, Karp RD, Rhiens LA (1984) Primary integumentary xenograft reactivity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Transplantation 37: 478–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. George JF, Howcroft TK, Karp RD (1987) Primary integumentary allograft reactivity in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Transplantation 43: 514–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gibson R. (1972) Nemerteans. Hutchinson Univ Library, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Glynn PW (1976) Some physical and biological determinants of coral community structure in the eastern Pacific. Ecol Mongr 46: 431–456Google Scholar
  63. Grosberg RK (1988) The evolution of allorecognition specificity in clonal invertebrates. Q Rev Biol 63: 377–412Google Scholar
  64. Grosberg RK, Quinn JF (1986) The genetic control and consequences of kin recognition by the larvae of a colonial marine invertebrate. Nature 322: 456–459Google Scholar
  65. Hammerberg G, Klein J (1975) Linkage disequilibrium between H-2 and t complexes on chromosome 17 of the mouse. Nature 258: 296–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hartman RS, Karp RD (1986) Demonstration of immunological memory in the allograft response of the American cockroach. Fed Proc 45: 502Google Scholar
  67. Hauenschild C (1954) Genetische und entwicklungsphysiologische Untersuchungen uber Intersexualitat und Gewebevertraglichkeit bei Hydractinia echinata. Wilhelm Roux Arch. Dev Biol 147: 1–41Google Scholar
  68. Hauenschild C (1956) Uber die Vererbung einer Gewebevertraglichkeitseigenschaft bei dem Hydroidpolypen Hydractinia echinata. Z Naturforsch 11b: 132–138Google Scholar
  69. Heyward AM, Stoddart JA (1985) Genetic structure of two species of Montipora on a patch reef; conflicting results from electrophoresis and histocompatibility. Mar Biol 85: 117–121Google Scholar
  70. Hildemann WH (1974) Some new concepts in immunological phylogeny. Nature 250: 116–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hildemann WH (1979) Immunocompetence and allogenic polymorphism among invertebrates. Transplantation 27: 1–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hildemann WH, Dix TG (1972) Transplantation reactions of tropical Australian echinoderms. Transplantation 15: 624–633Google Scholar
  73. Hildemann WH, Linthicum DS (1981) Transplantation immunity in the palaun sponge, Xestospongia exigua. Transplantation 32: 77–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hildemann WH, Reddy AL (1973) Phylogeny of immune responsiveness: marine invertebrates. Fed Proc 32: 2188–2194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hildemann WH, Uhlenbruck G (1974) Invertebrate immunology. Progr Immunol 2: 292–296Google Scholar
  76. Hildemann WH, Linthicum DS, Vann DC (1975a) Immunoincompatibility reactions in corals ( Coelenterata ). Adv Exp Med Biol 64: 105–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hildemann WH, Linthicum DS, Vann DC (1975b) Transplantation and immunoincompatibility reactions among reef building corals. Immunogenetics 2: 269–284Google Scholar
  78. Hildemann WH, Raison RL, Cheung G, Hull CJ, Akaka L, Okamoto J (1977) Immunological specificity and memory in a scleractinian coral. Nature 270: 219–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hildemann WH, Johnston IS, Jokiel PL (1979) Immunocompetence in the lowest metazoan phylum: transplantation immunity in sponges. Science 204: 420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hildemann WH, Bigger CH, Johnston IS, Jokiel PL (1980a) Characterisation of transplantation immunity in the sponge, Callyspongia diffusa. Transplantation 30: 362–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hildemann WH, Jokiel PL, Bigger CH, Johnston IS (1980b) Allogenic polymorphism and alloimmune memory in the coral, Montipora verrucosa. Transplantation 30: 297–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hostetter RK, Cooper EL (1972) Coelomocytes as effector cells in earthworm immunity. Immunol Commun 1: 155–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hostetter RK, Cooper EL (1973) Cellular anamnesis in earthworms. Cell Immunol 9: 384–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hostetter RK, Cooper EL (1974) Earthworm coelomocyte immunity. Contemp Top Immunobiol 4: 91–107Google Scholar
  85. Howcroft TK, Karp RD (1987) Demonstration of cell mediated cytotoxicity to allogeneic and xenogeneic tissue in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using a combination in vivo/in vitro assay. Transplantation 44: 129–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Humphreys T (1963) Chemical dissociation and in vitro reconstruction of sponge cell adhesions. I. Isolation and functional demonstration of the components involved. Dev Biol 8: 27–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Ivker F (1966) Histocompatibility and stolon overgrowth between interbreeding strains of Hydractinia echinata. Biol Bull 131: 393–398Google Scholar
  88. Ivker F (1972) A hierarchy of histocompatibility in Hydractinia echinata. Biol Bull 143: 162–174Google Scholar
  89. Johnston IS (1988) The behaviour of mixed intra-specific and inter-specific reaggregating cell suspensions and the phenomenon of allograft rejection in Callyspongia diffusa and Toxadocia violacea. In: Ruetzler K, Hartman W (eds) New perspectives in sponge biology. Proc 3rd Int Conf on the Biology of Sponges. Smithsonian Inst Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  90. Johnston IS, Hildemann WH (1983) Morphological correlates of intraspecific grafting reactions in the marine sponge Callyspongia diffusa. Mar Biol 74: 25–33Google Scholar
  91. Jokiel PL, Hildemann WH, Bigger CH (1982) Frequency of intercolony graft rejection or acceptance as a measure of population structure in the sponge, Callyspongia diffusa. Mar Biol 71: 135–139Google Scholar
  92. Jones SE, Bell WJ (1982) Cell-mediated immune-type responses of the American cockroach. Dev Comp Immunol 6: 35–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Karp RD (1976) Specific immunoreactivity in echinoderms. In: Wright RK, Cooper EL (eds) Phylogeny of thymus and bone-marrow-bursa cells. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  94. Karp RD, Duwel-Eby LE (1991) Adaptive immune responses in insects. In: Warr GW, Cohen N (eds) Phylogenesis of immune functions. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  95. Karp RD, Hildemann WH (1975) Specific rejection of integumentary allografts by the sea star, Dermasterias imbricata. Adv Exp Med Biol 64: 137–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Karp RD, Hildemann WH (1976) Specific allograft reactivity in the sea star, Dermasterias imbricata. Transplantation 22: 434–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Katow H, Watanabe H (1980) Fine structure of fusion reaction in compound ascidian, Botryllus primigenus ( Oka ). Dev Biol 76: 1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kaye H, Oritz T (1981) Strain specificity in a tropical marine sponge. Mar Biol 63: 165–173Google Scholar
  99. Kaye HR, Reiswig HM (1985) Histocompatibility responses in Verongia species (Demospongiae): implications of immunological studies. Biol Bull 168: 183–188Google Scholar
  100. Kelly K, Cooper EL, Raftos DA (1992) In vitro allogeneic cytotoxicity in the solitary urochordate, Styela clava. J Exp Zool 262: 202–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kingsley E, Briscoe DA, Raftos DA (1989) The role of histocompatibility in fusion between conspecifics of Styela plicata (Urochordata; Ascidiacea ). Biol Bull 76: 282–289Google Scholar
  102. Lackie AM (1993) Immunological recognition of cuticular transplants in insects. Dev Comp Immunol 7: 41–50Google Scholar
  103. Lackie AM (1986a) Hemolymph transfer as an assay for immunorecognition in insects. Transplantation 41: 360–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lackie AM (1986b) Transplantation immunity in arthropods: is immunorecognition merely wound-healing. In: Brehelin M (ed) Immunity in invertebrates. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  105. Lafferty KJ, Woolnough J (1977) The origin and mechanism of the allograft reaction. Immunol Rev 35: 231–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lang JC, (1971) Intraspecific aggression by schleractinian reef corals. I. The rediscovery of Scolymia cubensis. Bull Mar Sci 21: 952–959Google Scholar
  107. Lang JC (1973) Intraspecific aggression by schleractinian reef corals. II. Why the race is not always to the swift. Bull Mar Sci 23: 260–271Google Scholar
  108. Lange R, Plickert G, Muller WA (1989) Histoincompatibility in a low invertebrate Hydractinia echinata: analysis of the mechanism of rejection. J Exp Zool 249: 284–292Google Scholar
  109. Langlet C, Bierne J (1977) The immune response to xenografts in nermetines of the genus, Lineaus. In: Soloman JB, Horton JD (eds) Developmental immunobiology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  110. Langlet C, Bierne J (1982) Immunocompetent cells are responsible for rejection of incompatible xenogenic grafts in Lineus. Transplantation 34: 8–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Langlet C, Bierne J (1983) Experimental evidence for cell-mediated immune responses to incompatible grafts in Lineus ( Nemertea ). Dev Comp Immunol 7: 617–620Google Scholar
  112. Langlet C, Bierne J (1984) Immunocompetent cells requisite for graft rejection in Lineus (Invertebrata; Nemertea ). Dev Comp Immunol 8: 547–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Leddy SV, Green DR (1991) Historecognition in the cnidaria. In: Warr GW, Cohen N (eds) Phylogenesis of immune functions. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  114. Lemmi CA, Cooper EL (1981) Induction of coelomocyte proliferation by xenografts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Dev Comp Immunol 5: 73–80Google Scholar
  115. Lenhoff HM, Loomis WF (1961) Biology of hydra and some other coelenterates. Univ Miami Press, Coral CablesGoogle Scholar
  116. Linthicum DS, Marks DH, Stein EA, Cooper EL (1977) Graft rejection in earthworms: an electron microscopic study. Eur J Immunol 7: 871–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Milkman R (1967) Genetic and developmental studies on Botryllus schlosseri. Biol Bull 132: 229–243Google Scholar
  118. Millar RH (1966) Evolution in ascidians. In: Barnes H (ed) Some contemporary topics in marine science. Allen and Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  119. Miyazaki I, Hidaka M, Yamazato K (1984) Mechanism of changes in nematocyst composition during formation of sweeper tentacles in the coral, Galaxea fascicularis, Zool Sci 1: 982–991Google Scholar
  120. Moscona AA (1963) Studies on cell aggregation: demonstration of materials with selective cell binding ability. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 49: 742–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Moscona AA (1968) Cell aggregation: properties of specific cell ligands and their role in the formation of multicell systems. Dev Biol 18: 250–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mukai H (1967) Experimental alteration of fusability in compound ascidians. Sci Rep Kyoiku Daigaku B 13: 51–73Google Scholar
  123. Mukai H (1977) Comparative studies on the reproductive organs of four botryllid species. J Morphol 152: 363–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Mukai H, Shimoda H (1986) Studies of histocompatibility in natural populations of freshwater sponges. J Exp Zool 237: 241–255Google Scholar
  125. Mukai H, Watanabe H (1974) On the occurrence of colony specificity in some compound ascidians. Biol Bull 147: 411–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Muller WA (1964) Experimentelle Untersuchungen über Stockentwicklung, Polypendifferenzierung und Sexualchimaren bei Hydractinia echinata. Wilhelm Roux Arch 155: 181–268Google Scholar
  127. Muller WG, Bernd A, Zahn RK, Kurelec B, Dawes K, Muller I, Uhlenbruck G (1981) Xenograft rejection in marine sponges. Eur J Biochem 116: 573–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Nagashima L, Scofield VL (1981) Studies on the rejection reaction in Botryllus oozooids. Am Zool 21: 984–992Google Scholar
  129. Nakaye S (1984) Intra- and inter-specific interaction in porites. Zool Sci 1: 996–1005Google Scholar
  130. Neigel JE, Avise JC (1983) Histocompatibility bioassays of population structure in marine sponges. J Heredity 74: 134–170Google Scholar
  131. Neigel JE, Avise JC (1985) The precision of histocompatibility response in clonal recognition by tropical marine sponges. Evolution 39: 724–732Google Scholar
  132. Neigel JE, Schmahl GP (1984) Phenotypic variation within histocompatibility-defined clones of marine sponges. Science 224: 413–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Oka H (1970) Colony specificity in compound ascidians. The genetic control of fusability. In: Profiles of Japanese science and scientists. Kodansha, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  134. Oka H, Watanabe H (1957) Colony specificity in compound ascidians as tested by fusion experiments (a preliminary report). Proc Jpn Acad 33: 657–659Google Scholar
  135. Oka H, Watanabe H (1960) Problems of colony specificity in compound ascidians. Bull Mar Biol Stn Asamushi 10: 153–155Google Scholar
  136. Purcell JE, Kitting CL (1982) Intraspecific aggression and population distribution of the sea anemone, Metridium senile. Biol Bull 153: 355–359Google Scholar
  137. Raftos DA (1990a) Cellular restriction of histocompatibility responses in tte solitary urochordate Styela plicata (Urochordata, Ascidiacea). Dev Comp Immunol 15: 241–249Google Scholar
  138. Raftos DA (1990b) Morphology of integumentary graft rejection in the solitary urochordate Styela plicata. Cell Tissue Res 261: 389–296Google Scholar
  139. Raftos DA, Raison RL (1992) Out of the primordial slime: evolution and the immune system. Today’s Life Sci 14: 16–20Google Scholar
  140. Raftos DA, Briscoe DA (1990) Genetic basis of allograft rejection in Styela plicata ( Urochordata, Ascidiacea). J Heredity 81: 160–166Google Scholar
  141. Raftos DA, Cooper EL (1991) Proliferation of lymphocyte-like cells from the solitary tunicate, Styela clava, in response to allogeneic stimuli. J Exp Zool 260: 391–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Raftos DA, Tait NN, Briscoe DA (1987a) Allograft rejection and alloimmune memory in the solitary urochordate, Styela plicata. Dev Comp Immunol 11: 343–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Raftos DA, Tait NN, Briscoe DA (1987b) Cellular basis of allograft rejection in the solitary urochordate, Styela plicata. Dev Comp Immunol 11: 713–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Raftos DA, Tait NN, Briscoe DA (1988) Mode of recognition of allogeneic tissue in the solitary urochordate, Styela plicata. Transplantation 45: 1123–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Raison RL, Hull GJ, Hildemann WH (1976) Allogeneic graft rejection in Montipora verrucosa, a reef building coral. In: Wright RK, Cooper EL (eds) Phylogeny of thymus and bone marrow bursa cells. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  146. Reddy AL, Bryan B, Hildemann WH (1975) Integumentary allograft vs autograft reactions in Ciona intestinalis: a protochordate species of solitary tunicate. Immunogenetics 1: 584–590Google Scholar
  147. Rinkevich B, Weissman IL (1987) A long term study on fused sub-clones in the ascidian, Botryllus schlosseri: the resorption phenomenon. J Zool (Lond) 213: 717–733Google Scholar
  148. Rinkevich B, Weissman IL (1990b) Failure to find alloimmune memory in the resorption phenomenon of Botryllus cytomictical chimera. Eur J Immunol 20: 1775–1779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Rinkevich B, Weissman IL (1992a) Allogeneic resorption in colonial protochordates: consequences of nonself recognition. Dev Comp Immunol 16: 275–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Rinkevich B, Weissman IL (1992b) Incidents of rejection and indifference in Fu/HC incompatible protochordate colonies. J Exp Zool 263: 105–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Roch PG (1979) Leukocyte DNA synthesis in grafted lumbricids: an approach to study histocompatibility in invertebrates. Dev Comp Immunol 3: 417–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Roch PG, Valembois P, Du Pasquier L (1975) Response of earthworm leukocytes to concanavalin A and transplantation antigens. Adv Exp Med Biol 64: 45–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Rogener W, Renwrantz L (1984) Destruction of autografts and wound healing in Helix pomatia. Zool Jahrb Physiol 88: 515–527Google Scholar
  154. Sabbadin A (1982) Formal genetics of ascidians. Am Zool 22: 765–773Google Scholar
  155. Sabbadin A, Zaniolo G (1979) Sexual differentiation of germ cell transfer in the colonial ascidian, Botryllus schlosseri. J Exp Zool 207: 289–304Google Scholar
  156. Sauer KP, Muller M, Weber M (1986) Alloimmune memory for glycoprotein recognition molecules in sea anemones competing for space. Mar Biol 92: 73–79Google Scholar
  157. Schlichter D (1976) Maeromolecular mimicry: substances released by sea anemones and their role in the protection of anemone fishes. In: Mackie GO (ed) Coelenterate ecology and behaviour. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  158. Schmidt GH (1982) Aggregation and fusion between conspecifics of a solitary ascidian. Biol Bull 162: 195–201Google Scholar
  159. Scofield VL (1987) Control of fusability in colonial tunicates. In: Greenberg AH (ed) Invertebrate models: cell receptors and cell communication. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  160. Scofield VL, Nagashima LS (1983) Morphology and genetics of rejection reactions between oozooids from the tunicate, Botryllus schlosseri. Biol Bull 165: 733–744Google Scholar
  161. Scofield VL, Schlumpberger JM, West LA, Weissmann IL (1982a) Protochordate allorecognition is controlled by an MHC-like gene system. Nature 295: 499–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Scofield VL, Schlumpberger JM, Weissman IL (1982b) Colony specificity in the colonial tunicate Botryllus and the origins of vertebrate immunity. Am Zool 22: 783–794Google Scholar
  163. Sheppard CRC (1979) Interspecific aggression between reef corals with reference to their distribution. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 1: 237–247Google Scholar
  164. Simpson T (1973) Coloniality among the porifera. In: Boardman RS, Cheetham AH, Olivier WA (eds) Animal colonies. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, StroudsburgGoogle Scholar
  165. Smith LC (1988) The role of mesohyl cells in sponge allograft rejections. In: Grosberg RK, Hedgecock D, Nelson D (eds) Invertebrate historecognition. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  166. Smith LC, Davidson EH (1992) The echinoid immune system and the phylogenetic occurrence of immune mechanisms in deuterostomes. Immunol Today 13: 356–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Smith LC, Davidson EH (1993) The echinoid immune system revisited. Immunol Today 14: 91–94Google Scholar
  168. Smith LC, Hildemann WH (1984) Alloimmune memory is absent in Hymeniacidon snapium, a marine sponge. J Immunol 133: 2351–2355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Smith LC, Hildemann WH (1986a) Allograft rejection, autograft fusion and inflammatory responses to injury in Callyspongia diffusa (Porifera; Demospongia ). Proc R Soc Lond 226: 445–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Smith LC, Hildemann WH (1986b) Allogeneic cell interactions during graft rejection in Callyspongia diffusa (Porifera; Demospongia); a study with monoclonal antibodies. Proc R Soc Lond 226: 465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Stoddart JA, Ayre DJ, Willis B, Hey ward AJ (1985) Self-recognition in sponges and corals. Evolution 39: 461–463Google Scholar
  172. Tanaka K (1973) Allogenic inhibition in a compound ascidian, Botryllus primigenus (Oka) II: Cellular and humoral responses in “nonfusion” reaction. Cell Immunol 7: 427–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Tanaka K, Watanabe H (1973) Allogenic inhibition in a compound ascidian, Botryllus primigenus (Oka) I: Processes and features of “nonfusion” reaction. Cell Immunol 7: 410–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Taneda Y, Watanabe H (1982a) Studies on colony specificity in the compound ascidian Botryllus primigenus (Oka) I. Initiation of “nonfusion” reaction with special reference to blood cell infiltration. Dev Comp Immunol 6: 43–52Google Scholar
  175. Taneda Y, Watanabe H (1982b) Studies on colony specificity in the compound ascidian, Botryllus primigenus (Oka) II. In vivo bioassay for analysing the mechanism of “nonfusion” reaction. Dev Comp Immunol 6: 243–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Taneda Y, Watanabe H (1982c) Effects of X-irradiation on colony specificity in the compound ascidian, Botryllus primigenus ( Oka ). Dev Comp Immunol 6: 665–673Google Scholar
  177. Tardent P, Buhrer M (1982) Intraspecific tissue incompatibilities in the metagenetical Podocoryne carnea. In: Burger M, Weber R (eds) Embryonic development. AR Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  178. Tardent P, Jauch U (1983) An ultrastructural study of homoclonal and heteroclonal encounters between stolons of Podocoryne carnea. Mech Aging Dev 21: 257–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Theodor JL (1970) Distinction between self and non-self in lower invertebrates. Nature 227: 690–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Theodor J (1971) Reconnaissance du “self” au reconnaissance des “non-self”. Arch Zool Exp Gen 112: 113–116Google Scholar
  181. Theodor J (1976) Histocompatibility in a natural population of gorgonians. Zool J Linn Soc 58: 173–176Google Scholar
  182. Thomas IG, Ratcliffe NA (1982) Integumental grafting and immunorecognition in insects. Dev Comp Immunol 6: 643–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Toupin J, Lamoureux G (1976a) Coelomocytes of earthworms: the T-cell like rosette. Cell Immunol 26: 127–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Toupin J, Lamoureux G (1976b) Coelomocytes of earthworms: phytohaemagglutinin responsiveness. In: Wright RK, Cooper EL (eds) Phylogeny of thymus and bone marrow bursa cells. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  185. Tripp MR (1970) Immunity in molluscs. Transplant Proc 2: 231–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Valembois P (1974) Cellular aspects of graft rejection in earthworms and some other metazoans. Contemp Top Immunobiol 4: 121–126Google Scholar
  187. Van de Vyver G (1970) La non confluence intraspecifique chez les spongiaries et la notion d’individu. Ann Embryol Morphol 3: 251–262Google Scholar
  188. Van de Vyver G (1980) Second-set allograft rejection in two sponge species and the problem of alloimmune memory. In: Manning MJ (ed) Phylogeny of immunological memory. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  189. Van de Vyver G (1983) Absence of alloimmune memory in the freshwater sponge, Ephydatia fluviatilus. Dev Comp Immunol 7: 609–612Google Scholar
  190. Van de Vyver G (1988) Diversity of immune reaction in the sponge, Axinella polypoides. Proc 3rd Int Conf on Sponge biology. Smithsonian Inst Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  191. Van de Vyver G, Barbieux B (1983) Cellular aspects of allograft rejection in marine sponges of the genus Polymastia. J Exp Zool 227: 1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Van de Vyver G, Buscema M (1977) Phagocytic phenomena in different types of fresh-water sponge aggregates. In: Soloman JB, Horton JD (eds) Developmental immunobiology. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  193. Van de Vyver G, Toussaint D, Buscema M (1985) In situ manifestations of nonself recognition between encrusting sponges. J Morphol 183: 137–144Google Scholar
  194. Van de Vyver G, Holvoet S, Huysecom J (1986) Inhibition of allorecognition in the freshwater sponge, Ephydatia fluviatilis. Dev Comp Immunol 10: 429–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Van de Vyver G, Holvoet S, Dewint P (1990) Variability of the immune response in freshwater sponges. J Exp Zool 254: 215–227Google Scholar
  196. Wardrop AB (1970) The structure and formation of the test of Pyura stolonifera. Protoplasma 70: 73–86Google Scholar
  197. Warr GW, Decker JM, Mandel DD, Hudson R, Marchalonis JJ (1977) Lymphocyte-like cells of the tunicate Pyura stolonifera: binding of lectins, morphological and functional studies. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci. 55: 151–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Watanabe H, Taneda Y (1982) Self or non-self recognition in compound ascidians. Am Zool 22: 775–782Google Scholar
  199. Wellington GM (1980) Reversal of digestive interactions between Pacific reef corals: mediation by sweeper tentacles. Oceologia 47: 340–354Google Scholar
  200. Zea S, Humphreys T (1985) Self recognition in the sponge Microciona prolifera examined by histocompatibility and cell aggregation experiments. Biol Bull 169: 538–544Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. A. Raftos
    • 1
  1. 1.Immunobiology UnitUniversity of TechnologySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations