Advertisement

The Receptor for HIV: Dissection of CD4 and Studies on Putative Accessory Factors

  • W. James
  • R. A. Weiss
  • J. H. M. Simon
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 205)

Abstract

Soon after the identification of HIV as the causative agent of AIDS, it became clear that CD4 was its primary cellular receptor. The clinical observation that AIDS was characterized by a loss of the T helper/inducer subset of lymphocytes (Th) prompted the studies which showed that HIV replicated in vitro only in cells expressing the Th marker, CD4 (Klatzmann et al. 1984a), and that antibodies to CD4 specifically inhibited infection and syncytium formation (Dalgleish et al. 1984; Klatzmann et al. 1984b). The receptor function of CD4 was conclusively demonstrated when its expression was shown to confer HIV susceptibility on previously insusceptible cells (Maddon et al. 1986). Finally, when recombinant soluble CD4 was mixed with virus or virus-infected cells, infection and syncytium formation were inhibited, presumably because of competition with the cell surface receptor (Smith et al. 1987; Fisher et al. 1988; Hussey et al. 1988; Traunecker et al. 1988).

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Envelope Glycoprotein Syncytium Formation Gp120 Binding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allan J, Strauss J, Buck D (1990) Enhancement of SIV infection with soluble receptor molecules. Science 247: 1084–1088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arthos J, Deen KC, Chaikin MA, Fornwald JA, Sathe G, Sattentau QJ, Clapham PR, Weiss RA, Mougal JS, Pietropaolo C, Axel R, Truneh A, et al. (1989) Identification of the residues in human CD4 critical for the binding of HIV. Cell 57: 469–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashkenazi A, Presta LG, Marsters SA, Camerato TR, Rosenthal KA, Fendly BM, Capon DJ (1990) Mapping the CD4 binding site for human immunodeficiency virus by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 7150–7154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Autiero M, Abrescia P, Dettin M, Di BC, Guardiola J (1991) Binding to CD4 of synthetic peptides patterned on the principal neutralizing domain of the HIV-1 envelope protein. Virology 185: 820–828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Avril LE, Di MM, Barin F, Gauthier F (1993) Interaction between a membrane-associated serine proteinase of U-937 monocytes and peptides from the V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein. FEBS Lett 317: 167–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baba M, Pauwels R, Balzarini J, Arnout J, Desmyter J, De CE (1988a) Mechanism of inhibitory effect of dextran sulfate and heparin on replication of human immunodeficiency virus in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 6132–6136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baba M, Snoeck R, Pauwels R, De CE (1988b) Sulfated polysaccharides are potent and selective inhibitors of various enveloped viruses including herpes simplex virus cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 32: 1742–1745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Batinic D, Robey FA (1992) The V3 region of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 binds sulfated polysaccharides and CD4-derived synthetic peptides. J Biol Chem 267:6664–6671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beddows S, Bieniasz P, Shaunak S, Weber J (1993) HIV replication in CD4-negative cell lines: Effect of cloning, CD4 expression and inhibitory by dextrin sulphate. Antiviral Chem Chemother 4: 173–177Google Scholar
  10. Berger EA, Lifson JD, Eiden LE (1991) Stimulation of glycoprotein gp120 dissociation from the envelope glycoprotein complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by soluble CD4 and CD4 peptide derivatives: implications for the role of the complementarity-determining region 3-like region in membrane fusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 8082–8086PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhat S, Mettus RV, Reddy EP, Ugen KE, Srikanthan V, Williams WV, Weiner DB (1993) The galactosyl ceramide/sulfatide receptor binding region of HIV-1 gp120 maps to amino acids 206–275. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9: 175–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brady RL, Dodson EJ, Dodson GG, Lange G, Davis SJ, Williams AF, Barclay AN (1993) Crystal structure of domains 3 and 4 of rat CD4: relation to the NH2-terminal domains. Science 260: 976–983Google Scholar
  13. Broder CC, Berger EA (1993) CD4 molecules with a diversity of mutations encompassing the CDR3 region efficiently support human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion. J Virol 67: 913–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Broder CC, Dimitrov DS, Blumenthal R, Berger EA (1993) The block to HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein- mediated membrane fusion in animal cells expressing human CD4 be overcome by a human cell component(s). Virology 193:483–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Broder CC, Nussbaum O, Gutheil WG, Bachovchin WW, Berger EA, Patience C, Mnight A, Clapham PR, Boyd MT, Weiss RA, SchulF, Camerini D et al. (1994) CD26 antigen and HIV fusion? Science 264: 1156–1165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brodsky MH, Warton M, Myers RM, Littman DR (1990) Analysis of the site in CD4 that binds to the HIV envelope glycoprotein. J Immunol 144:3078–3086PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Burkly LC, Olson D, Shapiro R, Winkler G, Rosa JJ, Thomas DW, Williams C, Chisholm P (1992) Inhibition of HIV infection by a novel CD4 domain 2-specific monoclonal antibody: dissecting the basis for its inhibitory effect on HIV-induced cell fusion. J Immunol 149: 1779–1787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Callahan LN, Phelan M, Mallinson M, Norcross MA (1991) Dextran sulfate blocks antibody binding to the principal neutralizing domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 without interfering with gp120-CD4 interactions. J Virol 65: 1543–1550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Callebaut C, Krust B, Jacotot E, Hovanessian AG (1993) T cell activation antigen, CD26, as a cofactor for entry of HIV in CD4+ cells. Science 262: 2045–2050PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Camerini D, Seed B (1990) A CD4 domain important for HIV-mediated syncytium formation lies outside the virus binding site. Cell 60: 747–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cereda PM, Palu G, Rassu M, Toni M, Malwood W, Dettin M, Di BC (1991) Anti-HIV-1 activity of CD4 synthetic oligopeptides representative of the putative gp120 binding site. Antiviral Chem Chemother 2: 157–161Google Scholar
  22. Chen YH, Bock G, Vornhagen R, Steindl F, Katinger H, Dierich MP (1993) HIV-1 gp41 binds to several proteins on the human B-cell line, Raji. Mol Immunol 30: 1159–1163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cheng-Mayer C (1990) Biological and molecular features of HIV-1 related to tissue tropism. AIDS 4: S49-S56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chesebro B, Buller R, Portis J, Wehrly K (1990) Failure of human immunodeficiency virus entry and infection in CD4-positive human brain and skin cells. J Virol 64: 215–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Choe HR, Sodroski J (1992) Contribution of charged amino acids in the CDR2 region of CD4 to HIV-1 gp120 binding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 5: 204–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Christofinis G, Papadaki L, Sattentau Q, Ferns RB, Tedder R (1987) HIV replicates in cultured human brain cells. AIDS 1: 229–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Clapham P (1991) Human immunodeficiency virus infection of non-haematopoietic cells. The role of CD4-independent entry. Rev Med Virol 1: 51–58Google Scholar
  28. Clapham P, Mmght A, Weiss R (1992) Human immunodeficiency virus Type2 infection and fusion of CD4-negative cell lines: induction and enhancement by soluble CD4. J Virol 66: 3531–3537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Clapham PR, Blanc D, Weiss RA (1991) Specific cell surface requirements for the infection of CD4- positive cells by human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and by Simian immunodeficiency virus. Virology 181:703–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Clayton LK, Hussey RE, Steinbrich R, Ramachandran H, Husain Y, Reinherz EL (1988) Substitution of murine for human CD4 residues identifies amino acids critical for HIV-gp120 binding. Nature 335:363–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Collin M, lllei P, James W, Gordon S (1994) Definition of the range and distribution of HIV macrophage tropism using PCR-based infectivity measurements. J Gen Virol 75: 1597–1603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cook DG, Fantini J, Spitalnik SL, Gonzalez-Scarano F (1994) Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) Gp120 to galactosylceramide (Gaer): relationship to the V3 Loop. Virology 201: 206–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cordonnier A, Montagnier L, Emerman M (1989) Single amino-acid changes in HIV envelope affect viral tropism and receptor binding. Nature 340: 571–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dalgleish AG, Beverley PC, Clapham PR, Crawford DH, Greaves MF, Weiss RA (1984) The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus. Nature 312: 763–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dalgleish AG, Chanh TC, Thomson BJ, Malkovsky M, Kennedy RC (1987) Neutralisation of HIV isolates by anti-idiotypic antibodies which mimic the T4 (CD4) epitope: a potential AIDS vaccine. Lancet 2: 1047–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Davis SJ, Schockmel GA, Somoza C, Buck DW, Healey DG, Rieber EP, Reiter C, Williams AF (1992) Antibody and HIV-1 gp120 recognition of CD4 undermines the concept of mimicry between antibodies and receptors. Nature 358: 76–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dragic T, Alizon M (1993) Different requirements for membrane fusion mediated by the envelopes of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. J Virbl 67: 2355–2359Google Scholar
  38. Dragic T, Charneau P, Clavel F, Alizon M (1992) Complementation of murine cells for human immunodeficiency virus envelope/CD4-mediated fusion in human/murine heterokaryons. J Virol 66: 4794–4802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dragic T, Picard L, Alizon M (1995) Proteinase-resistant factors in human erythrocyte membranes mediate CD4-dependent fusion with cells expressing HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. J Virol 69: 1013–1018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Eiden LE, Lifson JD (1992) HIV interactions with CD4: a continuum of conformations and consequences. Immunol Today 13: 201–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fisher RA, Bertonis JM, Meier W, Johnson VA, Costopoulos DS, Liu T, Tizard R, Walker BD, Hirsch MS, Schooley RT, Flavell RA (1988) HIV infection is blocked in vitro by recombinant soluble CD4. Nature 331: 76–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fu YK, Hart TK, Jonak ZL, Bugelski PJ, (1993) Physicochemical dissociation of CD4-mediated syncytium formation and shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120. J Virol 67: 3818–3825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Golding H, Blumenthal R, Manischewitz J, Littman DR, Dimitrov DS (1993) Cell fusion mediated by interaction of a hybrid CD4.CD8 molecule with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein does occur after a long lag time. J Virol 67: 6469–6475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gomatos PJ, Stomatos NM, Gendelman HE, Fowler A, Hoover DL, Kalter DC, Burke DS, Tramont EC, Meitzer MS (1990) Relative inefficiency of soluble recombinant CD4 for inhibition of infection by monocyte-tropic HIV in monocytes and T cells. J Immunol 144: 4183–4188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Goudsmit J, Smit L (1990) CD 11a/CD18 (LFA-1) epitopes involved in syncytium formation among CD4+T-cells following cell free HIV-1 infection. Viral Immunol 3: 289–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Gruber MF, Webb D, Gerrard TL, Mostowski HS, Vujcic L, Golding H (1991) Re-evaluation of the involvement of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1/LFA-1 in syncytia formation of HIV-1-infected subclones of a CEM T-cell leukemic line. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 7: 45–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Harouse JM, Bhat S, Spitalnik SL, Laughlin M, Stefano K, Silbergerg DH, Gonzalecarano F (1991) Inhibition of entry of HIV-1 in neural cell lines by antibodies against galactosyl ceramide. Science 253:320–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Harrington RD, Geballe AP (1993) Cofactor requirement for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry into a CD4-expressing human cell line. J Virol 67: 5939–5947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Harrop HA, Coombe DR, Rider CC (1994) Heparin specifically inhibits binding of V3 loop antibodies to HIV-1 gp120, an effect potentiated by CD4 binding. AIDS 8: 183–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hasunuma T, Tsubota H, Watanabe M, Chen ZW, Lord CI, Burkiy LC, Daley JF, Letvin NL (1992) Regions of the CD4 molecule not involved in virus binding or syncytia formation are required for HIV-1 infection of lymphocytes. J Immunol 148: 1841–1846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Healey D, Dianda L, Moore JP, McDougal JS, Moore MJ, Estess P, Buck D, Kwong PD, Beverley P, Sattentau QJ (1990) Novel anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies separate human immunodeficiency virus infection and fusion of CD4+ cells from virus binding. J Exp Med 172: 1233–1242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Healey DG, Dianda L, Buck D, Schroeder K, Truneh A, Sattentau QJ, Beverley P (1991) A highly selected panel of anti-CD4 antibodies fails to induce anti-idiotypic antisera mediating human immunodeficiency virus neutralization. Eur J Immunol 21: 1491–1498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hildreth J, Orentas RJ (1989) Involvement of a leukocyte adhesion receptor (LFA-I) in HIV-induced syncytium formation. Science 244: 1075–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hosoya M, Balzarini J, Shigeta S, De CE (1991) Differential inhibitory effects of sulfated polysaccharides and polymers on the replication of various myxoviruses and retroviruses, depending on the composition of the target amino acid sequences of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 35: 2515–2520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hussey RE, Richardson NE, Kowalski M, Brown NR, Chang HC, Siliciano RF, Dorfman T, Walker B, Sodroski J, Reinherz EL (1988) A soluble CD4 protein selectively inhibits HIV replication and syncytium formation. Nature 331: 78–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hwang SS, Boyle TJ, Lyerly HK, Cullen BR (1991) Identification of the envelope V3 loop as the primary determinant of cell tropism in HIV-1. Science 253: 71–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ito M, Baba M, Sato A, Pauwels R, De CE, Shigeta S (1987) Inhibitory effect of dextran sulfate and heparin on the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro. Antiviral Res 7: 361–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Jameson BA, Rao PE, Kong LI, Hahn BH, Shaw GM, Hood LE, Kent S (1988) Location and chemical synthesis of a binding site for HIV-1 on the CD4 protein. Science 240: 1335–1339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Joualt, T. Chapuis F, Bahraoui E, Gluckman JC (1991) Infection of monocytic cells by HIV 1: Combined role of F and CD4. Res Virol 142: 183–188Google Scholar
  60. Jouault T, Chapuis F, Olivier R, Parravicini C, Bahraoui E, Gluckman JC (1989) HIV infection of monocytic cells: role of antibody-mediated virus binding to Fc-gamma receptors. AIDS 3: 125–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. June RA, Schade SZ, Bankowski MJ, Kuhns M, Mamara A, Lint IF, Landay AL, Spear GT (1991) Complement and antibody mediate enhancement of HIV infection by increasing virus binding and provirus formation. AIDS 5: 269–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kalyanaraman VS, Rausch DM, Osborne J, Padgett M, Hwang KM, Lifson JD, Eiden LE (1990) Evidence by peptide mapping that the region CD4(81–92) is involved in gp120/CD4 interaction leading to HIV infection and HIV-induced syncytium formation. J Immunol 145: 4072–4078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kido H, Fukutomi A, Katunuma N (1991) A novel membrane-bound serine esterase in human T4+-lymphocytes is a binding protein of envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1. Biomed Biochim Acta 50: 781–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Klatzmann D, Barre SF, Nugeyre MT, Danquet C, Vilmer E, Griscelli C, Brun VF, Rouzioux C, Gluckman JC, Chermann JC et al. (1984a) Selective tropism of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) for helper-inducer T lymphocytes. Science 225: 59–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Klatzmann D, Champagne E, Chamaret S, Gruest J, Guetard D, Hercend T, Gluckman JC, Montagnier L (1984b) T-lymphocyte T4 molecule behaves as the receptor for human retrovirus LAV. Nature 312:767–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Langedijk J, Puijk WC, Van HW, Meloen RH (1993) Location of CD4 dimerization site explains critical role of CDR3-like region in HIV-1 infection and T-cell activation and implies a model for complex of coreceptor-MHC. J Biol Chem 268: 16875–16878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lasarte JJ, Sarobe P, Golvano J, Prieto I, Civeira MP, Gullon A, Sarin PS, Prieto J, Borrauesta F (1994) CD4-modified synthetic peptides containing phenylalanine inhibit HIV-1 infection in vitro. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 7: 129–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Layne SP, Merges MJ, Dembo M, Spouge JL, Nara PL (1990) HIV requires multiple gp120 molecules for CD4-mediated infection. Nature 346: 277–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lederman S, Gulick R, Chess L (1989) Dextran sulfate and heparin interact with CD4 molecules to inhibit the binding of coat protein (gp120) of HIV. J Immunol 143: 1149–1154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Leonard C, Spellman N, Riddles L, Harris R, Thomas J, Gregory T (1990) Assignment of intrachain disulphide bonds and characterization of potential glycosylation sites of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein (gp120) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem 265: 10373–10376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lifson JD, Hwang KM, Nara PL, Fraser B, Padgett M, Dunlop NM, Eiden LE (1988) Synthetic CD4 peptide derivatives that inhibit HIV infection and cytopathicity. Science 241: 712–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lifson JD, Rausch DM, Kalyanaraman VS, Hwang KM, Eiden LE (1991) Synthetic peptides allow discrimination of structural features of CD4 (81–92) important for HIV-1 infection versus HIV-1- induced syncytium formation. AIDS Res Human Retroviruses 7: 521–527Google Scholar
  73. Maddon PJ, Dalgleish AG, Mougal JS, Clapham PR, Weiss RA, Axel R (1986) The T4 gene encodes the AIDS virus receptor and is expressed in the immune system and the brain. Cell 47:333–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Malvoisin E, Wild F (1994) Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein interaction with the CD4 host cell receptor. J Gen Virol 75: 839–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mann DL, Read Connole E, Arthur LO, Robey WG, Wernet P, Schneider EM, Blattner WA, Popovic M (1988) HLA-DR is involved in the HIV-1 v binding site on cells expressing MHC class II antigens. J Immunol 141:1131–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Mbemba E, Chams V, Gluckman JC, Klatzmann D, Gattegno L (1992a) Molecular interaction between HIV-1 major envelope glycoprotein and dextran sulfate. Biochim Biophys Acta 1138: 62–67Google Scholar
  77. Mbemba E, Czyrski JA, Gattegno L (1992b) The interaction of a glycosaminoglycan, heparin, with HIV-1 major envelope glycoprotein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1180: 123–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. McAlarney T, Apostolski S, Lederman S, Latov N (1994) Characteristics of HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein binding to glycolipids. J Neurosci Res 37: 453–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McClure MO, Moore JP, Blanc DF, Scotting P, Cook G, Keynes RJ, Weber JN, Davies D, Weiss RA (1992) Investigations into the mechanism by which sulfated polysaccharides inhibit HIV infection in vitro. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 8: 19–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. McDougal JS, Nicholson J, Cross GD et al. (1986) Binding of the human retrovirus HTLV-III/LAV/ARV/ HIV to the CD4 (T4) molecule: conformation dependence epitope mapping, antibody inhibition, and potential for idiotypic mimicry. J Immunol 137: 2937–2944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. McKeating JA, Griffiths PD, Weiss RA (1990) HIV susceptibility conferred to human fibroblasts by cytomegalovirus-induced Fc receptor. Nature 343: 659–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. McKeating J, Balfe P, Clapham P, Weiss RA (1991a) Recombinant CD4-selected human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants with reduced gp120 affinity for CD4 and increased cell fusion capacity. J Virol 65: 477–4785Google Scholar
  83. McKeating JA, McKnight A, Moore JP (1991b) Differential loss of envelope glycoprotein gp120 from virions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates: effects on infectivity and neutralization. J Virol 65: 852–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. McKeating JA, Cordell J, Dean CJ, Balfe P (1992) Synergistic interaction between ligands binding to the CD4 binding site and V3 domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120. Virology 191: 732–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. McKnight A, Clapham PR, Weiss RA (1994) HIV-2 and SIV infection of nonprimate cell lines expressing human CD4: restrictions to replication at distinct stages. Virology 201: 8–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Meshcheryakova D, Andreev S, Tarasova S, Sidorova M, Vafina M, Kornilaeva G, Karamov E, Khaitov R (1993) CD4-derived peptide and sulfated polysaccharides have similar mechanisms of anti-HIV activity based on electrostatic interactions with positively charged gp120 fragments. Mol Immunol 30: 993–1001PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Mitsuya H, Looney DJ, Kuno S, Ueno R, Wontaal F, Broder S (1988) Dextran sulfate suppression of viruses in the HIV family: inhibition of virion binding to CD4+ cells.Science 240: 646–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Mizrachi Y, Zeira M, Shahabuddin M, Li G, Sinangil F, Volsky DJ (1991) Efficient binding, fusion and entry of HIV1 into CD4-negative neural cells: a mechanism for neuropathogenesis in AIDS. Bull Inst Pasteur 89: 81–96Google Scholar
  89. Mizukami T, Fuerst TR, Berger EA, Moss B (1988) Binding region for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and epitopes for HIV-blocking monoclonal antibodies of the CD4 molecule defined by site- directed mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 9273–9277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Moebius U, Clayton LK, Abraham S, Harrison SC, Reinherz EL (1992) The human immunodeficiency virus gp120 binding site on CD4: delineation by quantitative” equilibrium and kinetic binding studies of mutants in conjunction with a high-resolution CD4 atomic structure. J Exp Med 176:507–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Montefiori DC, Zhou J, Shaff Dl (1992) CD4-independent binding of HIV-1 to the B lymphocyte receptor CR2 (CD21) in the presence of complement and antibody. Clin Exp Immunol 90: 383–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Moore JP (1993) A monoclonal antibody to the CDR-3 region of CD4 inhibits soluble CD4 inhibits soluble CD4 binding to virions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol 67: 3656–3659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Moore JP, Meating JA, Weiss RA, Sattentau QJ (1990) Dissociation of gp120 from HIV-1 virions induced by soluble CD4. Science 250: 1139–1142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Moore JP, Meating JA, Norton WA, Sattentau QJ (1991) Direct measurement of soluble CD4 binding to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions: gp120 dissociation and its implications for virus-cell binding and fusion reactions and their neutralization by soluble CD4. Journal of Virology 65:1133–1140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Moore JP, Meating JA, Huang YX, Ashkenazi A, Ho DD (1992a) Virions of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates resistant to soluble CD4 (sCD4) neutralization differ in D4 binding and glycoprotein gp120 retention from D4-sensitive isolates. J Virol 66: 235–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Moore JP, Sattentau QJ, Klasse PJ, Burkly LC (1992b) A monoclonal antibody to CD4 domain 2 blocks soluble CD4-induced conformational changes in the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-1 infection of CD4+ cells. J Virol 66: 4784–4793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Moore JP, Burkly LC, Connor RI, Cao Y, Tizard R, Ho DD, Fisher RA (1993) Adaptation of two primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates to growth in transformed T cell lines correlates with alterations in the responses of their envelope glycoproteins to soluble CD4. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9: 529–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Moore JP, Sattentau QJ, Wyatt R, Sodroski J (1994) Probing the structure of the human immunodeficiency virus surface glycoprotein gp120 with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. J Virol 68: 469–484PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Nara PL, Hwang KM, Rausch DM, Lifson JD, Eiden LE (1989) CD4 antigen-based antireceptor peptides inhibit infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus in vitro at multiple stages of the viral life cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 7139–7143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Nygren A, Bergman T, Matthews T, Jornvall H, Wigzell H (1988) 95- and 25-a fragments of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein bind to the CD4 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 6543–6546Google Scholar
  101. Ohki K, Kimura T, Jones IM, Morita F, Ikuta K (1994) Multiple effects of CD4 CDR3-related peptide derivatives showing anti-HIV-1 activity on HIV-1 gp120 functions. Vaccine 12: 343–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Olshevsky U, -Helseth E, Furman C, Li J, Haseltine W, Sodroski J (1990) Identification of individual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 amino acids important for CD4 binding. J Virol 64:5701–5707Google Scholar
  103. Orloff SL, Kennedy MS, Beiperron AA, Maddon PJ, McDougal JS (1993) Two mechanisms of soluble CD4 (D4)-mediated inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity and their relation to primary HIV-1 isolates with reduced sensitivity to D4. J Virol 67: 1461–1471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Owens RJ, Tanner CC, Mulligan MJ, Srinivas RV, Compans RW (1990) Oligopeptide inhibitors of HIV-induced syncytium formation. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 6: 1289–1296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Pal R, Nair BC, Hoke GM, Sarngadharan MG, Edidin M (1991) Lateral diffusion of CD4 on the surface of a human neoplastic T-cell line probed with a fluorescent derivative of the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). J cell Physiol 147: 326–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Parish CR, Low L, Warren HS, Cunningham AL (1990) A polyanion binding site on the CD4 molecule. Proximity to the HIV-gp120 binding region. J Immunol 145: 1188–1195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Patel M, Yanagishita M, Roderiquez G, Bou HD, Oravecz T, Hascall VC, Norcross MA (1993) Cell- surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan mediates HIV-1 infection of T-cell lines. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9: 167–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pollard S, Rosa M, Rosa J, Wiley D (1992) Truncated variants of gp120 bind CD4 with high affinity and suggest a minimum CD4 binding region. EMBO J 11: 585–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Potts BJ, Field KG, Wu Y, Posner M, Cavacini L, Whitcharf M (1993) Synergistic inhibition of HIV-1 by CD4 binding domain reagents and V3-directed monoclonal antibodies. Virology 197: 415–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Poulin L, Evans LA, Tang SB, Barboza A, Legg H, Littman DR, Levy JA (1991) Several CD4 domains can play a role in human immunodeficiency virus infection in cells. J Virol 65: 4893–4901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Rausch DM, Hwang KM, Padgett M, Voltz AH, Rivas A, Engleman E, Gaston I, McGrath M, Fraser B, Kalyanaraman VS, Nara PL, Dunlop N et al. (1990) Peptides derived from the CDR3-homologous domain of the CD4 molecule are specific inhibitors of HIV-1 and SIV infection, virusinduced cell fusion, and postinfection viral transmission in virtro: implications for the design of small-peptide anti-HIV therapeutic agents. Ann N Y Acad Sci 616: 125–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rausch DM, Lifson JD, Padgett MP, Chandrasekhar B, Lendvay J, Hwang KM, Eiden LE (1992) CD4(81–92)-based peptide derivatives; Structural requirements for blockade of HIV infection, blockade of HIV-induced syncytium formation, and virostatic activity in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol 43:1785–1796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Reisinger EC, Vogetseder W, Berzow D, Kofier D, Bitterlich G, Lehr HA, Wächter H, Dierich MP (1990) Complement-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection of the monoblastoid cell line U937. AIDS 4:961–965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Repke H, Gabuzda D, Palu G, Emmrich F, Sodroski J (1992) Effects CD4 synthetic peptides on HIV type I envelope glycoprotein function. J Immunol 149: 1809–1816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Richardson N, Brown N, Hussey R, Vaid A, Matthews T, Bolognesi D, Reinherz E (1988) Binding site for human immunodeficiency virus coat protien gp120 is located in the NH2-terminal region of T4 (CD4) and requires the intact variable-region-like domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 6102–6106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Ryu SE, Kwong PD, Truneh A, Porter TG, Arthos J, Rosenberg M, Dai X, Xuong N, Axel R, Sweet RW, Hendrickson WA (1990) Crystal structure of an HIV-binding recombinant fragment of human CD4. Nature 348:419–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Sato Al, Balamuth FB, Ugen KE, Williams WV, Weiner DB (1994) Identification of CD7 glycoprotein as an accessory molecule in HIV-1- mediated syncytium formation and cellfree infection. J Immunol 152: 5142–5152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Sattentau QJ, Dalgleish AG, Weiss RA, Beverley P (1986) Epitopes of the CD4 antigen and HIV infection. Science 234: 1120–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Sattentau QJ, Clapham PR, Weiss RA, Beverley P, Montagnier L, Alhalabi MF, Gluckmann JC, Klatzmann D (1988) The human and simian immunodeficiency viruses HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV interact with similar epitopes on their cellular receptor, the CD4 molecule. AIDS 2: 101–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sattentau QJ, Moore JP, Vignaux F, Traincard F, Poignard P (1993) Conformational changes induced in the envelope glycoproteins of the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses by soluble receptor binding. J Virol 67: 7383–7393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Schmitt D, Dezutteambuyant C, Hanau D, Kolbe H, Kieny MP, Cazenave JP, Thivolet J (1990) In vitro binding and internalization of HIV envelope glycoproteins by human epidermal Langerhans cells does not require the CD4-GP120-binding site. Res Virol 141: 209–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Schockmel G, Somoza C, Davis S, Williams A, Healey D (1992) Construction of a binding site for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 in rat CD4. J Exp Med 175: 301–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Schols D, Pauwels R, Desmyter J, de CE (1990) Dextran sulfate and other polyanionic anti-HIV compounds specifically interact with the viral gp120 glycoprotein expressed by T-Cells persistently infected with HIV-1. Virology 175: 556–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Schultz T, Reeves J, Hoad J, Tailor C, Stephens P, Glements G, Ortlepp S, Page K, Moore J, Weiss R (1993) Effects of mutations in the V3 loop of HIV-1 gp120 on infectivity and susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9: 159–166Google Scholar
  125. Seddiki N, Ramdani A, Saffar L, Portoukalian J, Gluckman JC, Gattegno L (1994) A monoclonal antibody directed to sulfatide inhibits the binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein to macrophages but not their infection by the virus. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 1225: 289–296Google Scholar
  126. Shapirahor O, Golding H, Vujcic LK, Restuiz S, Fields RL, Robey’FA (1990) CD4-derived synthetic peptide blocks the binding of HIV-1 GP120 to CD4-bearing cells and prevents HIV-1 infection. Cell Immunol 128: 101–117Google Scholar
  127. Simon J, Schockmel G, lllei P, James W (1994) A rodent cell line permissive for entry and reverse transcription of HIV-1 has a pre-integration block to productive infection. J Gen Virol 75: 2615–2623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Simon JH, Somoza C, Schockmel GA, Collin M, Davis SJ, Williams AF, James W (1993) A rat CD4 mutant containing the gp120-binding site mediates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Exp Med 177: 949–954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Simon JHM, James W (1994) Heterokaryons formed between a rat myeloma and a mouse fibroblast are permissive for entry of HIV-1. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 70: 7609–7677Google Scholar
  130. Smith DH, Byrn RA, Marsters SA, Gregory T, Groopman JE, Capon DJ (1987) Blocking of HIV-1 infectivity by a soluble, secreted form of the CD4 antigen. Science 238: 1704–1707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Spear PG, Shieh MT, Herold BC, Wunn D, Koshy Tl (1992) Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans as primary cell surface receptors for herpes simplex virus. Adv Exp Med Biol 313: 341–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Spouge JL (1994) Viral multiplicity of attachment and its implications for human immunodeficiency virus therapies. J Virol 68: 1782–1789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Stefano KA, Collman R, Kolson D, Hoxie J, Nathanson N, Gonzalecarano F (1993) Replication of a macrophage-tropic strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a hybrid cell line, CEMx174, suggests that cellular accessory molecules are required for HIV-1 entry. J Virol 67: 6707–6715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Sutor GC, Dreikhausen U, Vahning U, Jurkiewicz E, Hunsmann, G, Lundin K, Schedel I (1992) Neutralization of HIV-1 by anti-idiotypes to monoclonal anti-CD4: potential for idiotype immunization against HIV. J Immunol 149: 1452–1461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Syu W-J, Huang J-H, Essex M, Lee T-H (1990) The N-terminal region of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein contains potential binding sites for CD4. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:3695–3699PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Takeda A, Tuazon CU, Ennis FA (1988) Antibody-enhanced infection by HIV-1 via Fc receptor-mediated entry. Science 242: 580–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Tanabe TA, Tochikura TS, Blakeslee JJ, Olsen RG, Mathes LE (1992) Anti-human immunodeficiency. virus (HIV) agents are also potent and selective inhibitors of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)- induced cytopathic effect: development of a new method for screening of anti-FIV substances in vitro. Antiviral Res 19: 161–172Google Scholar
  138. Teshima G, Porter J, Yim k, Ling V, Guzzetta A (1991) Deamidation of soluble CD4 at asparagine-52 results in reduced binding capacity for the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120. Biochemistry 30:3916–3922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Thali M, Olshevsky, U, Furman C, Gabuzda D, Li J, Sodroski J (1991) Effects in changes of gp120-CD4 binding affinity on human immunodeficiency type 1 envelope glycoprotein function and soluble CD4 sensitivity. J Virol 88: 5007–5012Google Scholar
  140. Thieblemont N, Haeffneavaillon N, Ledur A, Lagtehr J, Ziegleeitbrock H, Kazatchkine MD (1993) CR1 (CD35) and CR3 (CD11b/CD18) mediate infection of human monocytes and monocytic cell lines with complement-opsonized HIV independently of CD4. Clin Exp Immunol 92: 106–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Traunecker A, Luke W, Karjalainen K (1988) Soluble CD4 molecules neutralize human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Nature 331: 84–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Truneh A, Buck D, Cassatt DR, Juszczak R, Kassis S, Ryu SE, Healey D, Sweet R, Sattentau Q (1991) A region in domain 1 of CD4 distinct form the primary gp120 binding site is involved in HIV infection and virus-mediated fusion. J Biol Chem 266: 5942–5948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Tsui P, Sweet RW, Sathe G, Rosenberg M (1992) An efficient phage plaque screen for the random mutational analysis of the interaction of HIV-1 gp120 with human CD4. J Biol Chem 267: 9361–9367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Valentin A, Lundin K, Patarroyo M, Asjo B (1990) The leukocyte adhesion glycoprotein CD18 participates in HIV-1-induced syncytia formation in monocytoid and T cells. J Immunol 144: 934–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. van den Berg L, Sadiq SA, Lederman S, Latov N (1992) The gp120 glycoprotein of HIV-1 binds to sulfatide and to the myelin associated glycoprotein. J Neurosci Res 33: 513–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Vermoesroches C, Rigal D, Escaich S, Bernaud J, Pichoud C, Lamelin JP, Trepo C (1991) Functional epitope analysis of the human CD11a/CD18 molecule (LFA-1, lymphocyte function-associated antige involved in HIV-1-induced syncytium formation. Scand Immunol 34: 461–470Google Scholar
  147. Wang JH, Yan YW, Garrett TP, Liu JH, Rodgers DW, Garlick RL, Tarr GE, Husain Y, Reinherz EL, Harrison SC (1990) Atomic structure of a fragment of human CD4 containing two immunoglobulin-like domains (see comments). Nature 348: 411–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Weiner DB, Huebner K, Williams WV, Greene Ml (1991) Human genes other than CD4 facilitate HIV-1 infection of murine cells. Pathobiology 59: 361–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Weiss R (1993) Cellular receptors and viral glycoproteins involved in retrovirus entry. In: Levy J (ed) The retroviridae, vol 2. Plenum, New York, pp 1–108Google Scholar
  150. Willey RL, Martin MA, Peden K (1994) Increase in soluble CD4 binding to and CD4-induced dissociation of gp120 from virions correlates with infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol 68:1029–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Wyatt R, Sullivan N, Thali M, Repke H, Ho D, Robinson J, Posner M, Sodroski J (1993) Functional and immunologic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins containing deletions of the major variable regions. 67: 4557–4565Google Scholar
  152. Zeira M, Byrn RA, Groopman JE (1990) Inhibition of serum-enhanced HIV-1 infection of U937 monocytoid cells by recombinant soluble CD4 and anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 6: 629–639PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. James
    • 1
  • R. A. Weiss
    • 2
  • J. H. M. Simon
    • 3
  1. 1.Sir William Dunn School of PathologyUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  2. 2.Chester Beatty LaboratoriesInstitute of Cancer ResearchLondonUK
  3. 3.Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Clinical Research BuildingUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations