P Elements in Drosophila

Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 204)


The Drosophila genome has many families of transposable elements; some of them have been studied in detail, and others are known only superficially (Berg and Howe 1989). Particular attention has been given to the P family (reviewed by Engels 1989), which has been the subject of intensive research for nearly two decades. There are two reasons for this special interest. First, the population biology and recent evolutionary history of P elements suggest a remarkable scenario of horizontal transfer from another species into D. melanogaster, followed by rapid spread through the global population. Second, a wide array of technical applications have made P elements an indispensable tool for manipulating the Drosophila genome.


Transposable Element Sister Chromatid Drosophila Genome Gonadal Dysgenesis Transposase Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anxolabéhère D, Périquet G (1987) P-homologous sequences in Diptera are not restricted to the Drosophilidae family. Genet Iber 39: 211–222Google Scholar
  2. Anxolabéhére D, Kai H, Nouaud D, Périquet G, Ronsseray S (1984) The geographical distribution of P-M hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Sel Evol 16: 15–26Google Scholar
  3. Anxolabéhère D, Nouaud D, Périquet G (1985a) Sequences homologues à I’ élément P chez des espèces de Drosophila du groupe obscura et chez Scaptomyza pallida (Drosophillidae). Genet Sel Evol 17: 579–584Google Scholar
  4. Anxolabéhère D, Nouaud D, Périquet G, Tchen P (1985b) P-element distribution in Eurasian populations of Drosophila melanogaster: a genetic and molecular analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 5418–5422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anxolabéhére D, Kidwell MG, Périquet G (1988) Molecular characteristics of diverse populations are consistent with a recent invasion of Drosophila melanogaster by mobile P-elements. Mol Biol Evol 5(3): 252–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashburner M (1989a) Drosophila, a laboratory handbook. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashburner M (1989b) Drosophila, a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Ballinger DG, Benzer S (1989) Targeted gene mutations in Drosophila. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 86: 9402–9406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Banga SS, Boyd JB (1992) Oligonucleotide-directed site-specific mutagenesis of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 1735–1739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Banga SS, Velazquez A, Boyd JB (1991) P transposition inDrosophila provides a new tool for analyzing postreplication repair and double-strand break repair. Mutat Res 255: 79–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berg CA, Spradling AC (1991) Studies on the rate and site-specificity of P-element transposition. Genetics 127: 515–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Berg DE, Howe MM (1989) Mobile DNA. American Society of Microbiology, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  13. Bingham PM, Kidwell MG, Rubin GM (1982) The molecular basis of P-M hybrid dysgenesis: the role of the P-element, a P strain-specific transposon family. Cell 29: 995–1004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Black DM, Jackson MS, Kidwell MG, Dover GA (1987) KP elements repress P-induced hybrid dysgenesis in D. melariogaster. EMBO J 6: 4125–4135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Boussy IA, Healy MJ, Oakeshott JG, Kidwell MG (1988) Molecular analysis of the P-M gonadal dysgenesis cline in eastern Australian Drosophila melariogaster. Genetics 119: 889–902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brand AH, Perrimon N (1993) Targeted gene expression as a means of altering cell fates and generating dominant phenotypes. Development 118:401–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brookfield J (1991) Models of repression of transposition in P-M hybrid dysgenesis by P cytotype and by zygotically encoded repressor proteins. Genetics 128: 471–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chain AC, Zollman S, Tseng JC, Laski FA (1991) Identification of a cis-acting sequence required for germ line specific splicing of theP-element ORF2-ORF3 intron. Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:1538–1546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Charlesworth B, Langley CH (1989) The population genetics of Drosophila transposable elements. Annu Rev Genet 23: 251–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark JB, Maddison WP, Kidwell MG (1994) Phylogenetic analysis supports horizontal transfer of P transposable elements. Mol Biol Evol 11: 40–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Coen D (1990) P-element regulatory products enhance zeste1 repression of a P[Whiteduplicaied] transgene in Drosophila melariogaster. Genetics 126: 949–960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cooley L, Kelley R, Spradling A (1988) Insertional mutagenesis of the Drosophila genome with single P elements. Science 239:1121–1128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Daniels S, Peterson K, Strausbaugh L, Kidwell M, Chovnick A (1990) Evidence for horizontal transmission of the P transposable element between Drosophila species. Genetics 124: 339–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Daniels SB, Chovnick A (1993) P-element transposition in Drosophila melariogaster. an analysis of sister-chromatid pairs and the formation of intragenic secondary insertions during meiosis. Genetics 133: 623–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Eggleston WB (1990) P-element transposition and excision in Drosophila: interactions between elements. PhD thesis, University of WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  26. Engels WR (1979a) The estimation of mutation rates when premeiotic events are involved. Environ Mutag 1:37–43Google Scholar
  27. Engels WR (1979b) Extrachromosomal control of mutability in Drosophila melariogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 4011–4015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Engels WR (1979c) Germline aberrations associated with a case of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melariogaster males. Genet Res Camb 33: 137–146Google Scholar
  29. Engels WR (1979d) Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melariogaster: rules of inheritance of female sterility. Genet Res Camb 33: 219–236Google Scholar
  30. Engels WR (1981) Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila and the stochastic loss hypothesis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 45: 561–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Engels WR (1989) P elements in Drosophila. In: Berg D, Howe M (eds) P elements in Drosophila, American Society of Microbiology, Washington DC, pp 437–484Google Scholar
  32. Engels WR (1992) The origin of P elements in Drosophila melariogaster. Bio essays 14: 681–686Google Scholar
  33. Engels WR, Preston CR (1979) hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melariogaster. the biology of male and female sterility. Genetics 92: 161–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Engels WR, Preston CR (1981) Identifying P factors in Drosophila by means of chromosome breakage hotspots. Cell 26: 421–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Engels WR, Preston CR (1984) Formation of chromosome rearrangements by P factors in Drosophila. Genetics 107: 657–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Engels WR, Benz WK, Preston CR, Graham PL, Phillis RW, Robertson HM (1987) Somatic effects of P-element activity in Drosophila melariogaster. Pupal lethality. Genetics 117: 745–757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Engels WR, Johnson-Schlitz DM, Eggleston WB, Sved J (1990) High-frequency P-element loss in Drosophila is homolog-dependent. Cell 62: 515–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Engels WR, Preston CR, Johnson-Schlitz DM (1994) Long-rangecis preference in DNA homology search extending over the length of aDrosophila chromosome. Science 263: 1623–1625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gloor GB, Nassif NA, Johnson-Schlitz DM, Preston CR, Engels WR (1991) Targeted gene replacement in Drosophila yia P-element-induced gap repair. Science 253: 1110–1117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gloor GB, Preston CR, Johnson-Schlitz DM, Nassif NA, Phillis RW, Benz WK, Robertson HM, Engels WR (1993) Type I repressors of P-element mobility. Genetics 135: 81–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Golic K, Lindquist S (1989) The FLP recombinase of yeast catalyzes site-specific recombination in the Drosophila genome. Cell 59: 499–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Golic KG (1994) Local transposition of P elements in Drosophila melanogaster and recombination between duplicated elements using a siterspecific recombinase. Genetics 137: 551–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Good AG, Meister GA, Brock HW, Grigliatti TA, Hickey DA (1989) Rapid spread of transposable P elements in experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 122:387–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Green MM (1977) Genetic instability in Drosophila melanogaster: de novo induction of putative insertion mutations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 3490–3493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Haenlin M, Steiler H, Pirrotta V, Mohier E (1985) A 43 kilobase cosmid P transposon rescues the fs(1)KW morphogenetic locus and three adjacent Drosophila developmental mutants. Cell 40: 827–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hagemann S, Miller WJ, Pinsker W (1994) Two distinct P-element subfamilies in the genome of Drosophila bifasciata. Mol Gen Genet 244:168–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Handler AM, Gomez SP, O’Brochta DA (1993) Negative regulation of P-element excision by the somatic product and terminal sequences of P inDrosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet 237: 145–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hartenstein V, Jan Y-N (1992) Studying Drosophila embryogenesis with PlacZ enhancer trap lines. Rouxxs Arch Dev Biol 201: 194–220Google Scholar
  49. Higuet D, Anxolabéhère D, Nouaud D (1992) A particular P-element insertion is correlated to the P- induced hybrid dysgenesis repression inDrosophila melanogaster. Genet Res Camb 60:15–24Google Scholar
  50. Hiraizumi Y (1979) A new method to distinguish between meiotic and premeiotic recombinational events in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 92: 543–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Houck MA, Clark JB, Peterson KR, Kidwell MG (1991) Possible horizontal transfer of Drosophila genes by the mite Proctolaelaps regalis. Science 253: 1125–1128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Jackson MS, Black DM, Dover GA (1988) Amplification of KP elements associated with the repression of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 120: 1003–1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Johnson CW (1913) The distribution of some species of Drosophila. Psyche 20: 202–204Google Scholar
  54. Johnson-Schlitz DM, Engels WR (1993) P-element-induced interallelic gene conversion of insertions and deletions in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol 13: 7006–7018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kaiser K, Goodwin S (1990) “Site-selected” transposon mutagenesis ofDrosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 1686–1690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Karess RE, Rubin GM (1984) Analysis of P transposable element functions inDrosophila. Cell 38: 135–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kaufman PD, Rio DC (1991) Drosophila P-element transposase is a transcriptional repressor in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 2613–2617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kaufman PD, Rio DC (1992) P-element transposition in vitro proceeds by a cut-and-paste mechanism and uses GTP as a cofactor. Cell 69: 27–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kaufman PD, Doll RF, Rio DC (1989)Drosophila P-element transposase recognizes internal P-element DNA sequences. Cell 59: 359–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kassis JA, Noll E, vanSickle EP, Odenwald WF, Perrimon N (1992) Altering the insertional specificity of a Drosophila P-element transposable element. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 1919–1923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kelley MR, Kidd S, Berg RL, Young MW (1987) Restriction of P-element insertions at the Notch locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol 7:1545–1548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kidwell MG (1979) Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: The relationship between the P-M and l-R interaction systems. Genet Res Camb 33: 105–117Google Scholar
  63. Kidwell MG (1983) Evolution of hybrid dysgenesis determinants in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 1655–1659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kidwell MG (1986) P-M mutagenesis, In: Roberts DB (ed) P-M mutagenesis, IRL Press, Oxford, pp 59–82Google Scholar
  65. Kidwell MG (1993) Horizontal transfer of P elements and other short inverted repeat transposons. In: McDonald JF (ed) Horizontal transfer of P elements and other short inverted repeat transposons, Kluwer Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. Kidwell MG, Novy JB (1979) Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: sterility resulting from gonadal dysgenesis in the P-M system. Genetics 92: 1127–1140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kidwell MG, Kidwell JF, Sved JA (1977) Hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster: syndrome of aberrant traits including mutation, sterility, and male recombination. Genetics 86: 813–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kidwell MG, Frydryk I, Novy JB (1983) The hybrid dysgenesis potential of Drosophila melanogaster strains of diverse temporal and geographical natural origins. Dros Inform Serv 59: 63–69Google Scholar
  69. Kiyasu PK, Kidwell MG (1984) Hybrid dysgenesis inDrosophila melariogaster. the evolution of mixed P and M population maintainted at high temperature. Genet Res Camb 44: 251–259Google Scholar
  70. Lachaise D, Cariou ML, David JR, Lemeunier F, Tsacas L, Ashburner M (1988) Historical biogeography of the Drosophila melariogaster species subgroup. Evol Biol 22: 159–225Google Scholar
  71. Lansman RA, Stacey SN, Grigliatti TA, Brock HW (1985) Sequences homologous to the P mobile element of Drosophila melariogaster are widely distributed in the subgenus Sophophora. Nature 318: 561–563Google Scholar
  72. Lansman RA, Shade RO, Grigliatti TA, Brock HW (1987) Evolution of P transposable elements: Sequences ofDrosophila nebulosa P-elements, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 6491–6495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Laski FA, Rio DC, Rubin GM (1986) Tissue specificity of Drosophila P-element transposition is regulated at the level of mRNA splicing. Cell 44: 7–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lemaitre B, Coen D (1991) P regulatory products repress in vivo the P promoter activity in P-lacZ fusion genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:4419–4423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lemaitre, B, Ronsseray S, Coen D (1993) Maternal repression of the P-element promoter in the germline of Drosophila melariogaster. a model for the P cytotype. Genetics 135:149–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lindsley DL, Zimm GG (1992) The Genome of Drosophila melariogaster, 1. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  77. McDonald JF (1993) Transposable elements and evolution. Kluwer Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  78. Meister GA, Grialiatti TA (1993) Rapid spread of a P-element/Adh gene construct through experimental populations of Drosophila melariogaster. Genome 36:1169–1175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Miller WJ, Hagemann S, Reiter E, Prinsker W (1992) P-element-homologous sequences are tandemly repeated in the genome of Drosophila guariche. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 89: 4018–4022Google Scholar
  80. Misra S, Rio DC (1990) Cytotype control of Drosophila P-element transposition: the 66-kD protein is a repressor of transposase activity. Cell 62: 269–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Misra S, Buratowski RM, Ohkawa T, Rio DC (1993) Cytotype control of Drosophila melariogaster P-element transposition: genomic position determines maternal repression. Genetics 135: 785–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Mullins MC, Rio DC, Rubin GM (1989) Cis-acting DNA sequence requirements for P-element transposition. Genes Dev 3: 729–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Nassif NA, Engels WR (1993) DNA homology requirements for mitotic gap repair in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 1262–1266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Nassif NA, Penney J, Pal S, Engels WR, Gloor GB (1994) Efficient copying of nonhomologous sequences from ectopic sites via P-element-induced gap repair. Mol Cell Biol 14:1613–1625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Niki Y (1986) Germline autonomous sterility of P-M dysgenic hybrids and their application to germline transfers in Drosophila melariogaster. Dev Biol 113: 255–258Google Scholar
  86. Niki Y, Chigusa SI (1986) Developmental analysis of the gonadal sterility of P-M hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melariogaster. Jpn J Genet 61: 147–156Google Scholar
  87. O’Brochta DA, Gomez SP, Handler AM (1991) P-element excision inDrosophila melariogaster and related drosophilids. Mol Gen Genet 225: 387–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. O’Hare K, Rubin GM (1983) Structure of P transposable elements and their sites of insertion and excision in theDrosophila melariogaster genome. Cell 34: 25–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. O’Hare K, Driver A, McGrath S, Johnson-Schlitz DM (1992) Distribution and structure of cloned P elements from the Drosophila melariogaster P strain n 2. Genet Res Camb 60: 33–41Google Scholar
  90. O’Kane CJ, Gehring WJ (1987) Detection in situ of genomic regulatory elements inDrosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 9123–9127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Ochman H, Gerber AS, Hart DL (1988) Genetic applications of an inverse polymerase chain reaction. Genetics 120:621–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Papoulas O, McCall K, Bender W (1994) Targeted gene conversion at the birthorax complex, 35th annual drosophila research conference, Chicago, p 218Google Scholar
  93. Paques F, Wegnez M (1993) Deletions and amplifications of tandemly arranged ribosomal 5S genes internal to a P-element occur at a high rate in a dysgenic context. Genetics 135: 469–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Paricio N, Perez-Alonso M, Martinez-Sebastian MJ, de Frutos R (1991) P sequences of Drosophila subobscura lack exon 3 and may encode a 66 kd repressor-like protein. Nucleic Acids Res 19: 6713–6718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Perkins HD, Howells AJ (1992) Genomic sequences with homology to the P-element of Drosophila melariogaster occur in the blowfly Lucilla cupriria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:10753–10757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Pirrotta V (1988) Vectors for P-mediated transformation in Drosophila. Biotechnology 10: 437–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Preston CR, Engels WR (1989) Spread of P transposable elements in inbred lines of Drosophila melariogaster. In: Cohn W, K Moldave (eds) Spread of P transposable elements in inbred lines of Drosophila melariogaster, (vol. 36) Academic, San Diego, pp 71–85Google Scholar
  98. Rasmusson KE, Raymond JD, Simmons MJ (1993) Repression of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster by individual naturally occurring P-elements. Genetics. 133: 605–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Raymond JD, Ojala TA, White J, Simmons MJ (1991) Inheritance of P-element regulation in Drosophila melanogaster. Genet Res 57: 227–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Rio DC (1990) Molecular mechanisms regulating Drosophila P-element transposition. Annu Rev Genet 24: 543–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rio DC, Rubin GM (1988) Identification and purification of a Drosophila protein that binds to the terminal 31-base-pair repeats of the P transposable element. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 8929–8933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Rio DC, Laski FA, Rubin GM (1986) Identification and immunochemical analysis of biologically active Drosophila P-element transposase. Cell 44: 21–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Robertson HM (1993) The mariner tarnsposable element is widespread in insects (see comments). Nature 362: 241–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Robertson HM, Engels WR (1989) Modified P elements that mimic the P cytotype in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 123: 815–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Robertson HM, Preston CR, Phillis RW, Johnson-Schlitz D, Benz WK, Engels WR (1988) A stable genomic source of P-element transposase in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 118: 461–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Roiha H, Rubin GM, O’Hare K (1988) P-element insertions and rearrangements at the singed locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 119: 75–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ronsseray S, Lehmann M, Anxolabéhère D (1991) The maternally inherited regulation of P elements in Drosophila melanogaster can be elicited by two P copies at cytological site 1A on the X chromosome. Genetics 129: 501–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ronsseray S, Lemaitre B, Coen D (1993) Maternal inheritance of P cytotype in Drosophila melanogaster. “pre- P cytotype” is strictly extra-chromosomally transmitted. Mol Gen Genet 241: 115–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Rubin GM, Spradling AC (1982) Genetic transformation ofDrosophila with transposable element vectors. Science 218: 348–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Rubin GM, Kidwell MG, Bingham PM (1982) The molecular basis of P-M hybrid dysgenesis: The nature of induced mutations. Cell 29: 987–994PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Salz HK, Cline TW, Schedl P (1987) Functional changes associated with structural alterations induced by mobilization of a P-element inserted in the Sex-lethal gene of Drosophila. Genetics 117: 221–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Searles LL, Jokerst RS, Bingham PM, Voelker RA, Greenleaf AL (1982) Molecular cloning of sequences from a Drosophila RNA polymerase II locus by P-element transposon tagging. Cell 31: 585–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sentry JW, Kaiser K (1994) Application of inverse PCR to site-selected mutagenesis of Drosophila. Nucleic Acids Res 22: 3429–3430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Serano TL, Cheung HK, Frank LH, Cohen RS (1994) P-element transformation vectors for studying Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis and early embryogenesis. Gene 138: 181–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Siebel CW, Rio DC (1990) Regulated splicing of the Drosophila P transposable element third intron in vitro: somatic repression. Science 248:1200–1208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Simmons MJ, Raymond JD, Johnson N, Fahey T (1984) A comparison of mutation rates for specific loci and chromosome regions in dysgenic hybrid males of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 106: 85–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Simonelig M, Anxolabéhère D (1991) A P-element of Scaptomyza pallida is active in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 6102–6106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Spicer GS (1988) Molecular evolution among some Drosophila species groups as indicated by two- dimensional electrophoresis. J Mol Evol 27: 250–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Spradling AC (1986) P-element-mediated transformation. In: Roberts DB (ed) P-element-mediated transformation. IRL Press, Oxford, pp. 175–197Google Scholar
  120. Spradling AC, Rubin GM (1982) Transposition of cloned P elements intoDrosophila germ line chromosomes. Science 218:341–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Staveley BE, Hodgetts RB, O’Keefe SL, Bell JB (1994) Targeting of an enhancer trap to vestigial. Dev Biol 165:290–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sturtevant AH (1921) The North American species of Drosophila. Carnegie Institute Washington publication, vol 301Google Scholar
  123. Sved JA, Eggleston WB, Engels WR (1990) Germline and somatic recombination induced by in vitro modified P elements inDrosophila melanogaster. Genetics 124:331–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sved JA, Blackman LM, Gilchrist AS, Engels WR (1991) High levels of recombination induced by homologous P elements Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet 225: 443–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Syvanen M (1984) The evolutionary implications of mobile genetic elements. Annu Rev Genet 18: 271–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Takasu-lshikawa E, Yoshihara M, Hotta Y (1992) Extra sequences found at P-element excision sites in Drosophila melariogaster. Mol Gen Genet 232:17–23Google Scholar
  127. Tower J, Karpen GH, Craig N, Spradling AC (1993) Preferential tarnsposition in Drosophila P elements to nearby chromosomal sites. Genetics 133: 347–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Tseng JC, Zollman S, Chain AC, Laski FA (1991) Splicing of the Drosophila P-element ORF2-ORF3 intron is inhibited in a human cell extract. Mech Dev 35: 65–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Tsubota S, Schedl P (1986) Hybrid dysgenesis-induced revertants of insertions at the 5’ end of the rudimentary gene in Drosophila melanogaster: transposon-induced control mutations. Genetics 114: 165–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Tsubota S, Ashburner M, Schedl P (1985) P-element-induced control mutations at the r gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Cell Biol 5: 2567–2574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wei G, Oliver B, Mahowald AP (1991) Gonadal dysgenesis reveals sexual dimorphism in the embryonic germline of Drosophila published erratum appears in Genetics (1992) 130 (1): 235] Genetics 129:203–210Google Scholar
  132. Williams JA, Bell JB (1988) Molecular organization of the vestigial region in Drosophila melanogaster. EMBO J 7: 1355–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Williams JA, Pappu SS, Bell JB (1988) Suppressive P-element alleles of the vestigial locus in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Gen Genet 212: 370–374Google Scholar
  134. Xu T, Rubin GM (1993) Analysis of genetic mosaics in developing and adult Drosophila tissues. Development 117: 1223–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Genetics DepartmentUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations