The environment of the Mediterranean-type ecosystems appears spatially fragmentous and highly heterogeneous in time. Temporal heterogeneity resides upon strong interannual, seasonal and diurnal oscillations of climatic variables inducing analogous fluctuations in food and water resources. The spatial heterogeneity of the Mediterranean habitats is to a lesser extent originated from the heterogeneity of the landscapes but for the most part from management practices involving overgrazing of the lands coupled with frequent fires and wood removal. It is evident, however, that seasonal effects are most important and overwhelm effects based either on interannual fluctuations or on ordinary human impacts.
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