Cost and Sustainability Factors

  • Charles G. Gunnerson
  • Jonathan A. French
Part of the Environmental Engineering book series (ESE)


Earlier chapters focused mostly on the scientific and engineering aspects of ocean disposal of coastal city wastewaters. This chapter looks at costs and other nonstructural engineering determinants in the urban water and sanitation sector. The final selection of technologies and instruments for a coastal city depends upon four interrelated sets of planning and implementation factors. These include: (1) what costs? who benefits? who pays? (counterpart and public participation, cost recovery, relative costs of water and sanitation, outfall costs, and shared benefits), (2) system options (scales in water supply, disposal, reclamation, and conservation, comparative costing), (3) water, sanitation and public health service levels, and (4) cooperation, competition, and water conflict issues from local to international scales (capacity building, information and technology transfer, community participation, the prisoners dilemma). Chapters 3, 10, and 11 include narrative introductions to some of these factors. Selected empirical and/or theoretical models for each of the four categories follow, beginning with an historical development of the unity of water supply and sanitation. Much of the background for this chapter lies in operational information exchanges between industrial country expatriate engineers and their developing country counterparts (13). Institutional and political policy issues such as potential roles of market forces, “unbundling” and privatization of components that are natural monopolies within transportation, water, and other sectors are documented elsewhere (36,37).


Service Level Septic Tank Sanitation System Submarine Pipeline High Service Level 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles G. Gunnerson
    • 1
  • Jonathan A. French
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Engineering and PolicyLaguna HillsUSA
  2. 2.Camp, Dresser and McKeeCambridgeUSA

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