Selected Models of HIV-Induced Neurological Disease

  • O. Narayan
  • S. V. Joag
  • E. B. Stephens
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 202)


The encephalopathy associated with HIV infection consists of a constellation of histopathological abnormalities including gliosis, multinucleated giant cell encephalitis, vacuolar myelopathy and white matter pallor, each of which may be evident singly or in combination in different individuals (Kure et al. 1990; Budka 1986). In infants, the lesions are more severe and include degeneration and mineralization in the basal ganglia, necrotizing encephalitis in cortical and subcortical structures and acquired microcephaly (Sharer et al. 1986), reflecting the massive loss of brain substance that occurs during infection in the brain. These changes are accompanied by production of β2-microglobulin, neopterin and quinolinic acid which are markers of immune activation, especially of macrophages (Brew et al. 1990, 1992; Heyes et al. 1991). Histological changes in such brains are marked by nodular accumulations of microglial cells, activation of perivascular macrophages and microglia, many of which express MHC II antigens, and activation and proliferation of astrocytes. Paradoxically, these signs of immune activation in the brain occur on a background of severe immunosuppression in the affected persons (Navia et al. 1986; Price 1994).


Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Antiviral Antibody Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Visna Virus 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. Narayan
    • 1
  • S. V. Joag
    • 1
  • E. B. Stephens
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Marion Merrell Dow Laboratory of Viral PathogenesisUniversity of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA

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