Additional Cyclic Hardening of metals under Tension-Torsion and Triaxial Tension-Compression Loadings
The additional cyclic hardening due to the nonproportionality of the loading has been shown for the first time by H. Lamba and O. Sidebottom, . These first experimental results have clearly shown that the constitutive models developed from uniaxial experiments were not able to predict the behavior of metals under complex loadings. Since, a great number of experiments have been made in order to understand the hardening and the softening of metals under multiaxial loadings, , , , . Now, a lot of phenomenological models of elasto-plasticity have been proposed for the description of the additional cyclic hardening under complex paths. In all cases, the authors consider that out of phase tension-torsion test leads to the maximum hardening, , , . This hypothesis is now controversial. On one hand, some experimental data obtained, on a Nickel-Base alloy (waspaloy), with “butterfly” loading path, , exhibit a higher hardening than the one corresponding to a 90 deg. out-of-phase path. On the other hand, some simulations made with a micromechanical model due to G. Cailletaud lead for some very complex loading paths to a very high cyclic hardening, again higher than the one corresponding to an out-of-phase path.
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