Advertisement

Cretaceous Bio-Events

  • Erle G. Kauffman
  • Malcolm B. Hart

Abstract

Bio-events occur at local, regional, and global scales, reflecting short-term, extraordinary, environmental changes. They can be classified as Diversification Bio-Events (punctuated evolution, population blooms, colonization and immigration bio-events), or Diversity Reduction Bio-Events (mass mortality, ecosystem shock, extinction and emigration bio-events). High-resolution (cm-dm scale) stratigraphic, geochemical, and paleobiological analyses demonstrate that many regional and most global bio-events are complex, multicausal phenomena. They may consist of two or more, closely spaced levels (“steps”) of biological response to rapid environmental changes — perturbations and their feedback loops — in ocean-climate systems. This is especially true for regional to global mass extinctions, which also tend to be ecologically graded, affecting more tropical, more stenotopic taxa/ecosystems first and most profoundly, and more poleward and/or eurytopic biotas later, and to a lesser degree. Comparisons of the stratigraphic expression of local, regional, and global bio-events are presented for the Cenomanian-Turonian (Ce-Tu: middle Cretaceous) Greenhorn Cyclothem at the Pueblo, Colorado reference section, where seven regional and one global bio-event (the C-T mass extinction) intervals are well defined. Regional and global bio-events are documented for the Americas, Europe, North Africa, and India. Global bio-event intervals include: the Jurassic-Cretaceous mass extinction interval; the Early Aptian Selli Bio-Event; the Late Aptian mass extinction interval; the Middle-Late Albian substage boundary bio-events; the Albian-Cenomanian stage boundary bio-events; the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary mass extinction interval; the Turonian-Coniacian stage boundary bio-events; the Coniacian/Santonian stage boundary bio-events; the Santonian/ Campanian stage boundary bio-events; the 68 Ma (Middle Maastrichtan) extinction interval; and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary mass extinction interval.

Keywords

Mass Extinction Oceanic Anoxic Event Cauvery Basin Faunal Turnover Geological Association 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alvarez, L.W., Alvarez, W., Asaro, F. and Michel, H. V., 1980. Extra-terrestrial cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction. Science 208, 1095–1108.Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez, W., Alvarez, L., Asaro, F. and Michel, H.V., 1982. Current status of the impact theory for the terminal Cretaceous extinction. In: Silver, L.T. and Schultz, P.H. (eds.), Geological Implications Of Impacts Of Large Asteroids And Comets On Earth. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 190, 305–315.Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez, W., Kauffman, E.G., Surlyk, F., Alvarez, L., Asaro, F. and Michel, H.V., 1984. The impact theory of mass extinctions and the marine and vertebrate fossil record across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Science 223, 1135–1141.Google Scholar
  4. Alvarez, W., Smit, J., Lowrie, W., Asaro, F., Margolis, S.V., Claeys, P., Kastner, M. and Hildebrand, A.R., 1992. Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: A restudy of DSDP leg 77, sites 536 and 540. Geology 20, 697–700.Google Scholar
  5. Arthur, M.A., Dean, W.E., Pollastro, R.M., Claypool, G.E. and Scholle, P.A., 1985. Comparative geochemical and mineralogical studies of two cyclic transgressive pelagic limestone units, Cretaceous Western Interior Basin, U.S. In: Pratt, L.M., Kauffman, E.G. and Zelt, F.B. (eds.), Fine-grained deposits and biofacies of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway: Evidence of Cyclic Sedimentary Processes, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 2nd Annual Midyear Meeting, Field Trip Guidebook No. 4, 16–27.Google Scholar
  6. Arthur, M.A., Dean, W.A. and Schlanger, S.O., 1985. Variations in the global carbon cycle during the Cretaceous related to climate, volcanism and changes in atmospheric CO2. Natural variations Archaean to Present. American Geophysical Union Monography 32, 504–529.Google Scholar
  7. Ascoli, P., Poag, C.W. and Remane, J., 1984. Micro-fossil zonation across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary on the Atlantic margin of North America. In: Westerman, G.E.G. (ed.), Jurassic-Cretaceous Biochronology and Paleogeography of North America. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 27, 31–48.Google Scholar
  8. Bakker, R.T., 1993. Plesiosaur extinction cycles — events that mark the beginning, middle and end of the Cretaceous. In: Caldwell, W.G.E. and Kauffman, E.G. (eds.), Evolution of the Western Interior Basin. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 39, 641–664.Google Scholar
  9. Banerji, R.K. and Sastri, V.V., 1979. Quantification of foraminiferal biofacies and reconstruction of palaeobiogeography of the Cauvery Basin. Journal of the Geological Society of India 20, 571–586.Google Scholar
  10. Barr, F.T., 1968. Upper Cretaceous stratigraphy of Jabal Al Akhdar, Northern Cyrenaica. Geology and Archaeology of Northern Cyrenaica, Libya. Petroleum Exploration Society of Libya, 131–142.Google Scholar
  11. Berner, R.A., 1994. GEOCARB II: A revised model for atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time. American Journal of Science 294, 56–91.Google Scholar
  12. Birkelund, T. and Bromley, R.G. (eds.), 1979. Cretaceous Tertiary Boundary Events. I. The Maastrichtian and Danian of Denmark. 210 pp. University of Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  13. Boucot, A.J., 1986. Ecostratigraphic criteria for evaluating the magnitude, character and duration of bioevents. In: Walliser, O.H. (ed.), Global Bio-events. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 8, 25–45. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  14. Breheret, J.G., 1985a. Indices d’un événement anoxique étendu à la Tethys alpine à l’Aptien inférieur (événement Paquier). C.R. Acad. Sc. Paris Ser. II, 300, no. 8, 355–358.Google Scholar
  15. Breheret, J.G., 1985b. Sédimentologie et diagenèse de la matière organique contenue dans le niveau Paquier, couche répèrée de ‘Albien inférieur vocoutien. C.R. Acad. Sc. Paris, Ser. II, 301, no. 15, 1151–1156.Google Scholar
  16. Breheret, J.G., Caron, M. and Delamette, M., 1989. Niveau riche en matière organique dans l’Albien Vocoutien; quelques caractères du paléoenvironnement; essai d’interpretation génétique. Docum. Bur. Rech. géol. min., no. 110, 141–191.Google Scholar
  17. Caldwell, W.G.E., Diner, R., Eicher, D.L., Fowler, S.P., North, B.R., Stelck, C.R. and von Holdt, W.L., 1993. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Cretaceous marine cyclothems. In: Caldwell, W.G.E. and Kauffman, E.G. (eds.), Evolution of the Western Interior Basin. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 39, 477–520.Google Scholar
  18. Casey, R. and Rawson, P.F., 1973. The Boreal Lower Cretaceous. Geological Journal Special Issue No. 5. 448 pp. Seel House Press, Liverpool.Google Scholar
  19. Christensen, W.K. and Birkelund, T. (eds.), 1979. Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Events Symposium. II. Proceedings. 250 pp. University of Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  20. Cobban, W.A. and Kennedy, W.J., 1989. The ammonite Metengonoceras hyatt, 1903, from the Mowry Shale (Cretaceous) of Montana and Wyoming. United States Geological Survey Bulletin 1787-L, L1-L11.Google Scholar
  21. Coccioni, R., Franchi, R., Nesci, O., Wezel, CF., Battistini, F. and Pallechi, P., 1989. Stratigraphy and mineralogy of the Selli Level (Early Aptian) at the base of the Marne a Fucoidi in the Umbrian-Marchean Appenines (Italy). In: Wiedmann, J. (ed.), Cretaceous of the Western Tethys. Proceedings 3rd Intern. Symp. Tübingen. p. 563–584. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.Google Scholar
  22. Coccioni, R., Erba, E. and Premoli Silva, I., 1992. Barremian-Aptian calcareous plankton biostrati-graphy from the Gorgo Cerbara section (Marche, central Italy) and implications for plankton evolution. Creaceous Research 13, 517–538.Google Scholar
  23. Edwards, L.E., 1984. Insights on why graphic correlation (Shaw’s method) works. Journal of Geology 92, 583–597.Google Scholar
  24. Edwards, L.E., 1989. Supplemented graphic correlation: A powerful tool for paleontologists and non-paleontologists. Palaios 4, 127–143.Google Scholar
  25. Eicher, D.L. and Diner, S.R., 1985. Foraminifera as indicators of water mass in the Cretaceous Greenhorn Sea, Western Interior. In: Pratt, L.M., Kauffman, E.G. and Zelt, F.B. (eds.), Fine-grained deposits and biofacies of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway: Evidence of Cyclic Sedimentary Processes, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 2nd Annual Midyear Meeting, Field Trip Guidebook No. 4, 60–71.Google Scholar
  26. Eicher, D.L. and Diner, S.R., 1989. Origin of the Cretaceous Bridge Creek cycles in the Western Interior, United States. Palaeogeography, Palaeo-climatology, and Palaeoecology 74, 127–146.Google Scholar
  27. Elder, W.P., 1985. Biotic patterns across the Ceno-manian-Turonian extinction boundary near Pueblo, Colorado. In: Pratt, L.M., Kauffman, E.G. and Zelt, F.B. (eds.), Fine-grained deposits and biofacies of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway: Evidence of Cyclic Sedimentary Processes, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 2nd Annual Midyear Meeting, Field Trip Guidebook No. 4, 157–169.Google Scholar
  28. Elder, W.P., 1987. Cenomanian-Turonian (Cretaceous) stage boundary extinctions in the Western Interior of the United States. Unpubl. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado, 690 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Elder, W.P., 1989. Molluscan extinction patterns across the Cenomanian-Turonian stage boundary in the Western Interior of the United States. Paleobiology 15, 299–320.Google Scholar
  30. Erba, E. and Mutterlose, J., 1992. The floral and faunal turnover in the Early Aptian (Early Cretaceous). Abstract Volume, 5th Intern. Conf. on Global Bio-events, 31–32, Göttingen.Google Scholar
  31. Fletcher, B.N., 1973. The distribution of Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian-Barremian) foraminifera in the Speeton Clay of Yorkshire, England. In: Casey, R. and Rawson, P.F. (eds.), The Boreal Lower Cretaceous. Geological Journal Special Issue No. 5, 161–168. Seel House Press, Liverpool.Google Scholar
  32. Govindan, A., 1982. Imprint of global “Cretaceous Anoxic Events” in East Coast basins of India and their implications. Bulletin of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission 19, 257–270.Google Scholar
  33. Govindan, A., 1993. Cretaceous anoxic events, sea level changes and microfauna in Cauvery Basin, India. In: Biswas, S.K. et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Second Seminar on Petroliferous Basins of India, vol. 1, 161–176.Google Scholar
  34. Hansen, T.A., Farrand, R.B., Montgomery, H.A., Billman, H.G. and Blechschmidt, G., 1987. Sedi-mentology and extinction patterns across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary interval in east Texas. Cretaceous Research 8, 229–252.Google Scholar
  35. Hansen, T.A., Upshaw, Banks, III, Kauffman, E.G. and Gose, W., 1993. Patterns of molluscan extinction and recovery across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in east Texas; report on new outcrops. Cretaceous Research 14, 685–706.Google Scholar
  36. Haq, B.V., Hardenbol, J. and Vail, P.R., 1987. Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Science 235, 1156–1167.Google Scholar
  37. Haq, B.V., Hardenbol, J. and Vail, P.R., 1988. Meso-zoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and cycles of sea-level change. In: Wilgus, C.K. et al. (eds.), Sea level changes: An integrated approach. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 42, 71–108.Google Scholar
  38. Hardenbol, J., Caron, M., Amedro, F., Dupuis, C. and Robaszynski, F., 1993. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary in central Tunisia in the context of a sequence-stratigraphic interpretation. Cretaceous Research 14, 449–454.Google Scholar
  39. Harland, W.B., Armstrong, R.L., Cox, A.V., Craig, L.E., Smith, A.G. and Smith, D.G., 1990. A geologic time scale 1989. 263 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  40. Harries, P.J. and Kauffman, E.G., 1990. Patterns of survival and recovery following the Cenomanian-Turonian (Late Cretaceous) mass extinction in the Western Interior Basin, United States. In: Kauffman, E.G. and Walliser, O.H. (eds.), Extinction Events in Earth History. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 30, 277–298. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  41. Hart, M.B., 1991. The Late Cenomanian calcisphere global bioevent. Proceedings of the Ussher Society 7, 413–417.Google Scholar
  42. Hart, M.B. and Ball, K.C., 1986. Late Cretaceous anoxic events, sea-level changes and the evolution of the planktonic foraminifera. In: Summerhayes, C.P. and Shackleton, N.J. (eds.), North Atlantic Palaeoceanography. Geologcial Society Special Publication 21, 67–78.Google Scholar
  43. Hart, M.B. and Duane, A.M., 1989. Late Cretaceous development of the Atlantic Continental Margin off S.W. England. Proceedings of the Ussher Society 7, 168–171.Google Scholar
  44. Hart, M.B., Bailey, H.W., Crittenden, S., Fletcher, B.N., Price, R.J. and Swiecicki, A., 1989. Cretaceous. In: Jenkins, D.G. and Murray, J.W. (eds.), Stratigraphical Atlas of Fossil Foraminifera. British Micropalaeontological Society Series. p. 273–371. Ellis Horwood, Chichester.Google Scholar
  45. Hildebrand, A.R., Penfield, G.T., Kring, D.A., Pilkington, M., Camargo, Z.A., Jacobsen, S.B. and Boynton, W.V., 1991. Chicxulub Crater: A possible Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary impact crater on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Geology 19, 867–871.Google Scholar
  46. Hut, P., Alvarez, W., Elder, W.P., Hansen, T.A., Kauffman, E.G., Keller, G., Shoemaker, E.M. and Weissman, P.R., 1987. Comet showers as a possible cause of stepwise extinctions. Nature 329, 118–126.Google Scholar
  47. Irving, E., North, F.K. and Couillard, R., 1974. Oil, climate and tectonics. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 11, 1–17.Google Scholar
  48. Jarvis, I., Carson, G.A., Cooper, M.K.E., Hart, M.B., Leary, P.N., Tocher, B.A., Horne, D. and Rosenfeld, A., 1988. Microfossil assemblages and the Cenomanian-Turonian (Late Cretaceous) oceanic anoxic event. Cretaceous Research 9, 3–103.Google Scholar
  49. Jeans, C.V., Long, D., Hall, M.A., Bland, D.J. and Cornford, C., 1991. The geochemistry of the Plenus Marls at Dover, England: evidence of fluctuating oceanographic conditions and of glacial control during the development of the Cenomanian-Turonian d13C anomaly. Geological Magazine 128, 603–632.Google Scholar
  50. Jeletzky, J.A., 1968. Macrofossil zones of the marine Cretaceous of the Western Interior of Canada and their correlation with the zones and stages of Europe and the Western Interior of the United States. Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 67–72, 66 p.Google Scholar
  51. Jeletzky, J.A., 1970. Cretaceous macrofaunas. In: Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada. Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report 1, 5th edition, p. 649–662.Google Scholar
  52. Jeletzky, J.A., 1984. Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary beds of western and Arctic Canada and the problem of the Tithonian — Berriasian stages in the Boreal Realm. In: Westerman, G.E.G. (ed.), Jurassic-Cretaceous Biochronology and Paleogeography of North America. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 27, 175–256.Google Scholar
  53. Jenkyns, H.C., 1980. Cretaceous anoxic events: From continents to oceans. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 137, 171–188.Google Scholar
  54. Jenkyns, H.C., Gale, A.S. and Corfield, R., 1994. Carbon- and oxygen-isotope stratigraphy of the English Chalk and Italian Scaglia and its palaeo-climatic significance. Geological Magazine 131 (1), 1–34.Google Scholar
  55. Johnson, C.C., 1993. Cretaceous biogeography of the Caribbean region. Unpubl. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 651 pp.Google Scholar
  56. Johnson, C.C. and Kauffman, E.G., 1990. Originations, radiations and extinctions of Cretaceous rudistid bivalve species in the Caribbean Province. In: Kauffman, E.G. and Walliser, O.H. (eds.), Extinction Events in Earth History. p. 305–324. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Johnson, C.C. and Kauffman, E.G., 1995 in press. Maastrichtian extinction patterns of Caribbean Province rudistids. In: MacLeod, N. and Keller, G. (eds.), The Cretaceous-Tertiary Mass Extinction: Biotic and Environmental Events. 38 MS pp. W.W. Norton & Co.Google Scholar
  58. Johnson, K.R., 1992. Foliar physiognomy of Maastrichtian leaf floras from the northern Great Plains: Implications for paleoclimate. Society for Sedimentology, SEPM 1992 Theme Meeting, Fort Collins, CO, Abstracts, p. 36.Google Scholar
  59. Kale, V.S. and Phansalkar, V.G., 1992a. Calcareous nannofossils from the Utatur Group, Trichinopoly District, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of the Palaeon-tological Society of India 37, 85–102.Google Scholar
  60. Kale, V.S. and Phansalkar, V.G., 1992b. Nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Utatur Group, Trichinopoly District, South India. Memoire di Scienze Geolo-giche,Padova 43, 89–107Google Scholar
  61. Kauffman, E.G., 1984. Paleobiogeography and evolutionary response dynamic in the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America. In: Westermann, G.E.G., Jurassic-Cretaceous Biochronology and Paleogeography of North America. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 27, 273–306.Google Scholar
  62. Kauffman, E.G., 1985. Cretaceous evolution of the Western Interior Basin of the United States. In: Pratt, L.M., Kauffman, E.G. and Zelt, F.B. (eds.), Fine-grained Deposits and Biofacies of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway: Evidence of Cyclic Sedimentary Processes. Society of EconomicGoogle Scholar
  63. Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 2nd Annual Midyear Meeting, Golden, CO, Field Trip Guidebook No. 4, IV–XIII.Google Scholar
  64. Kauffman, E.G., 1986. High-resolution event stratigraphy: Regional and global bioevents. In: Walliser, O.H. (ed.), Global Bioevents. Lecture Notes in Earch History 8, 279–335.Google Scholar
  65. Kauffman, E.G., 1988a. Concepts and methods of high-resolution event stratigraphy. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science 16, 605–654.Google Scholar
  66. Kauffman, E.G., 1988b. The dynamics of marine stepwise mass extinction. In: Lamolda, M.A., Kauffman, E.G. and Walliser, O.H., (eds.): Paleontology and Evolution: Extinction Events. Revista Espanola de Paleontologia, numero Extraordinario, p. 57–71.Google Scholar
  67. Kauffman, E.G., 1995 in press. Global change leading to biodiversity crisis in a greenhouse world: The Cenomanian-Turonian (Cretaceous) mass extinction. In: Stanley, S.M., Knoll, A.H. and Kennett, J. (eds.), The Effects Of Past Global Change On Life. 49 MS pp. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  68. Kauffman, E.G. and Caldwell, W.G.E., 1993. The Western Interior Basin in space and time. In: Caldwell, W.G.E. and Kauffman, E.G. (eds.), Evolution Of The Western Interior Basin. Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 39, 1–30.Google Scholar
  69. Kauffman, E.G. and Harries, P.J., 1995 in press. The importance of crisis progenitors in recovery from mass extinction. In: Hart, M.B. (ed.), Geological Association of London Special Volume, 48 MS pp.Google Scholar
  70. Kauffman, E.G. and Johnson, C.C., 1988. The morphological and ecological evolution of middle and Upper Cretaceous reef-building rudistids. Palaios 3, 194–216.Google Scholar
  71. Kauffman, E.G. and Walliser, O.H. (eds.), 1990. Extinction Events in Earth History. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 30, 432 pp. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  72. Kauffman, E.G., Elder, W.P. and Sageman, B.B., 1991. High-resolution correlation: A new tool in chronostratigraphy. In: Einsele, G., Ricken, W. and Seilacher, A. (eds.), Cycles and Events in Stratigraphy. p. 795–819. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  73. Kauffman, E.G., Sageman, B.B., Kirkland, J.I., Elder, W.P., Harries, P.J. and Villamil, T., 1993. Molluscan biostratigraphy of the Western Interior Cretaceous Basin, North America. In: Caldwell, W.G.E. and Kauffman, E.G. (eds.), Evolution of The Western Interior Basin. Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 39, 397–434.Google Scholar
  74. Keller, G., 1988. Extinction, survivorship and evolution of planktic foraminifera across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary at El kef, Tunisia. Marine Micropaleontology 13, 239–263.Google Scholar
  75. Keller, G., 1989a. Extended period of extinctions across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in plank-tonic foraminifera of continental shelf sections: implications for impact and volcanism theories. Geological Society of America Bulletin 101, 1408–1419.Google Scholar
  76. Keller, G., 1989b. Extended Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary extinctions and delayed population change in planktonic foraminiferal faunas from Brazos River, Texas. Paleoceanography 4, 287–332.Google Scholar
  77. Koutsoukos, E.A.M. and Hart, M.B., 1990a. Cretaceous foraminiferal morphogroup distribution patterns, palaeocommunities and trophic structures: a case study from the Sergipe Basin, Brazil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Earth Sciences 81, 221–246.Google Scholar
  78. Koutsoukos, E.A.M. and Hart, M.B., 1990b. Radio-larians and Diatoms from the mid-Cretaceous successions of the Sergipe Basin, Northeastern Brazil: palaeogeographic assessment. Journal of Micro-palaeontology 9, 45–64.Google Scholar
  79. Koutsoukos, E.A.M., Leary, P.N. and Hart, M.B., 1990. Latest Cenomanian-Earliest Turonian low-oxygen tolerant benthonic Foraminfera: a case study from the Sergipe Basin (N.E. Brazil) and the Western Anglo-Paris Basin (Southern England). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoeco-logy 77, 145–177.Google Scholar
  80. Koutsoukos, E.A.M., Mello, M.R., de Azambuja Filho, N.C., Hart, M.B. and Maxwell, J.R., 1991. The Upper Aptian-Albian succession of the Sergipe Basin, Brazil: an integrated palaeoenviron-mental assessment. Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists 75, 479–498.Google Scholar
  81. Kyser, T.K., Caldwell, W.G.E., Whittaker, S.G. and Cadrin, A.J., 1993. Paleoenvironment and geochemistry of the northern portion of the Western Interior Seaway during Late Cretaceous time. In: Caldwell, W.G.E. and Kauffman, E.G. (eds.), Evolution Of The Western Interior Basin. Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 39, 355–387.Google Scholar
  82. Lamolda, M.A., Kauffman, E.G. and Walliser, O.H. (eds.), 1988. Palaeontology and Evolution: Extinction Events. Revista Espanola de Paleontologia, numero Extraordinario, 155 pp.Google Scholar
  83. Larson, R.L., 1991a. Latest pulse of the Earth: evidence for a mid-Cretaceous superplume. Geology 19, 547–550.Google Scholar
  84. Larson, R.L., 1991b. Geological consequences of superplumes. Geology 19, 963–966.Google Scholar
  85. Larson, R.L., Fischer, A.G., Erba, E. and Premoli Silva, I., 1993. Summary of workshop results. In: Larson, R.L. et al., Apticore-Albicore: A workshop on global events and rhythms of the mid-Cretaceous, Perugia, Ocotber 1992, 56 pp.Google Scholar
  86. Leckie, R.M., 1985. Foraminifera of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval, Greenhorn Formation, Rock Canyon Anticline, Pueblo, Colorado. In: Pratt, L.M., Kauffman, E.G. and Zelt, F.B. (eds.), Fine-grained deposits and biofacies of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway: Evidence of Cyclic Sedimentary Processes. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 2nd Annual Midyear Meeting, Field Trip Guidebook No. 4, 139–150.Google Scholar
  87. MacLeod, K.G., 1994. Bioturbation, Inoceramid extinction, and mid-Maastrichtian ecological change. Geology 22, n. 2, 139–142.Google Scholar
  88. Marshall, CR., 1991. Estimation of taxonomic ranges from the fossil record. In: Gilinsky, N.L. and Signor, P.W. (eds.), Analytical Paleobiology. The Paleontological Society, Short Courses in Paleontology 4, 19–38.Google Scholar
  89. McDonough, K.J. and Cross, T., 1991. Late Cretaceous sea level from a paleoshoreline. Journal of Geophysical Research 96, 6591–6607.Google Scholar
  90. McHone, J.F. and Dietz, R.S., 1991. Multiple impact craters and astroblemes: Earth’s record. Geological Society of America, Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, Abstract Volume, p. A 183.Google Scholar
  91. Mortimore, R.N. and Pomerol, B., 1991. Stratigraphy and eustatic implications of trace fossils in the Upper Cretaceous chalk of Northern Europe. Palaois 6, 216–231.Google Scholar
  92. Moullade, M., 1966. Etude stratigraphique et micro-paléontologique du Crétacé inférieur de la “Fosse vocontienne”. Doc. Lab. Géol. Fac. Sc. Lyon 15 (1–2), 369 pp.Google Scholar
  93. Mutterlose, J., 1990. A belemnite scale for the Lower Cretaceous. Cretaceous Research 11, 1–15.Google Scholar
  94. Mutterlose, J., 1992a. Migration and evolution patterns of floras and faunas in marine Early Cretaceous sediments of NW Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 94, 261–282.Google Scholar
  95. Mutterlose, J., 1992b. Biostratigraphy and palaeobio-geography of Early Cretaceous calcareous nannofossils. Cretaceous Research 13, 167–189.Google Scholar
  96. Nichols, D.J., Fleming, R.F. and Frederiksen, N.O., 1990. Palynological evidence of effects of the terminal Cretaceous event on terrestrial floras in western North America. In: Kauffman, E.G. and Walliser, O.H. (eds.), Extinction Events in Earth History. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 30, 351–364. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  97. Nyong, E.E. and Olsson, R.K., 1984. A palaeoslope model of Campanian to Lower Maastrichtian Foraminifera in the North American Basin and adjacent continental margin. Marine Micropaleonto-logy 8, 437–477.Google Scholar
  98. Obradovich, J., 1993. A Cretaceous Time Scale. In: Caldwell, W.G.E. and Kauffman, E.G. (eds.), Evolution of the Western Interior Basin. Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 39, 379–396.Google Scholar
  99. Olsson, R.K. and Nyong, E.E., 1984. A palaeoslope model for Campanian-Lower Maastrichtian Foraminifera of New Jersey and Delaware. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 14, 50–68.Google Scholar
  100. Orth, C.J., 1989. Geochemistry of the bio-event horizons. In: Donovan, S.K. (ed.), Mass Extinctions: Processes and Evidence. pp. 37–72. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  101. Orth, C.J., Attrap, Jr., M., Quintana, L.R., Elder, W.P., Kauffman, E.G., Diner, R. and Villamil, T., 1993. Elemental abundance anomalies in the Late Cenomanian extinction interval: A search for the source(s). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 117, 189–204.Google Scholar
  102. Perch-Nielsen, K., McKenzie, J. and He, Q., 1982. Biostratigraphy and isotope stratigraphy and the “catastrophic” extinction of calcareous nanno-plankton at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. In: Silver, L.T. and Schultz, H.P. (eds.), Geological implications of impacts of large asteroids and comets on the Earth. Geological Society of America Special Paper 190, 353–371.Google Scholar
  103. Phansalkar, V.G. and Kumar Mary, K., 1983. Biostratigraphy of Utatur and Trichinopoly Groups of the Upper Cretaceous of Trichinopoly district Tamilnadu. Prof. Kelkar Memorial Volume, 183–195.Google Scholar
  104. Pitman, W.C. III, 1978. Relation between eustasy and stratigraphic sequences of passive margins. Geological Society of America Bulletin 89, 1389–1403.Google Scholar
  105. Pratt, L.M., 1985. Isotopic studies of organic matter and carbonate in rocks of the Greenhorn marine cycle. In Pratt, L.M., Kauffman, E.G. and Zelt, F.B. (eds.), Fine-grained deposits and biofacies of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway: Evidence of Cyclic Sedimentary Processes. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 2nd Annual Midyear Meeting, Field Trip Guidebook No. 4, 38–48.Google Scholar
  106. Pratt, L.M., Arthur, M.A., Dean, W.E. and Scholle, P.A., 1993. Paleooceanographic cycles and events during the Late Cretaceous in the Western Interior Seaway of North America. In: Caldwell, W.G.E. and Kauffman, E.G. (eds.), Evolution of the Western Interior Basin. Geological Association of Canada, Special Paper 39, 333–354.Google Scholar
  107. Quezada-Mumeton, J.M., Marin, L.E., Sharpton, V.L., Ryder, G. and Schuraytz, B.C., 1992. The Chicxulub impact structure: Shock deformation and target composition. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Abstracts 23, 1121–1122.Google Scholar
  108. Rad, U. von, Haq, B.U. et al., 1992. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling program, Scientific Results 122, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program).Google Scholar
  109. Ramasamy, S. and Banerji, R.K., 1991. Geology, petrography and systematic stratigraphy of pre-Ariyalur sequence in Tiruchirapalli District, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India 37, 577–594.Google Scholar
  110. Rampino, M.R., Strothers, R.B., O’Neil, B. and Haggerty, B., 1993. Asteroid impacts, mass extinction events, and flood basalt eruptions — an external driver. 1990 Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Meeting, Stratigraphic Record of Global Change, Pennsylvania State University, Abstract Volume, p. 57–58.Google Scholar
  111. Robaszynski, F., Hardenbol, J., Caron, M., Amedro, F., Dupuis, C. Gonzalez Donoso, J.-M., Linares, D. and Gartner, S., 1993. Sequence stratigraphy in a distal environment: the Cenomanian of the Kalaat Senan Region (Central Tunisia). Bull. Centres Rech. Explor.-Prod. Elf-Aquitaine 17, 395–433.Google Scholar
  112. Sageman, B.B., 1991. High-resolution event stratigraphy, carbon geochemistry, and paleobiology of the Upper Cenomanian Hartland Shale Member (Cretaceous), Greenhorn Formation, Western Interior, U.S.A.. Unpubl. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 532 pp.Google Scholar
  113. Sageman, B.B., Kauffman, E.G., Harries, P.J. and Elder, W.P., 1995 in press. Cenomanian-Turonian bioevents and ecostratigraphy in the Western Interior Basin: Contrasting scales of local, regional, and global events. In: Brett, C. (ed.), Bioevents in Stratigraphy. 68 MS pp.Google Scholar
  114. Savin, S.M., 1977. The history of the Earth’s surface temperature during the past 100 million years. Annual Review of the Earth and Planetary Sciences 5, 319–355.Google Scholar
  115. Schindewolf, O., 1962. Neokatastrophismus? Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft, Zeitschrift Jahrg. 114, n. 2, 430–445.Google Scholar
  116. Scott, G.R., 1969. General and engineering geology of the northern part of Pueblo, Colorado. United States Geological Survey Bulletin 1262, 131 pp.Google Scholar
  117. Sepkoski, J.J., Jr., 1993. Ten years in the library: new data confirm paleontological patterns. Paleobiology 19, n. 1, 43–51.Google Scholar
  118. Sharpton, V.L. and Ward, P.D. (eds.), 1990. Global Catastrophes in Earth History. Geological Society of America Special Paper 247, 631 pp.Google Scholar
  119. Signor, P.W. and Lipps, J.H., 1982. Sampling bias, gradual extinction patterns, and catastrophes in the fossil record. In: Silver, L.T. and Schultz, P.H. (eds.), Geological Implications of Impacts of Large Asteroids And Comets On The Earth. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 190, 291–296.Google Scholar
  120. Silver, L.T. and Schultz, P.H. (eds.), 1982. Geological Implications Of Impacts Of Large Asteroids And Comets On The Earth. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 190, 528 pp.Google Scholar
  121. Stephenson, L.W., 1952. Larger invertebrate fossils of the Woodbine Formation (Cenomanian) of Texas. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 242, 211 pp.Google Scholar
  122. Sundaram, R. and Rao, P.S., 1986. Lithostratigraphy of Cretaceous and Palaeocene rocks of Tiruchirapalli District, Tamil Nadu, South India. Records of the Geological Survey of India 115, 9–23.Google Scholar
  123. Swinburne, N.H.M., 1991. Tethyan extinctions, sea-level changes and the Sr-isotope curve in the 10 M.a. preceeding the K/T boundary. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 72, suppl., p. 267.Google Scholar
  124. Tissot, B., 1979. Effects on prolific petroleum source rocks and major coal deposits caused by sea-level changes. Nature 277, 463–465.Google Scholar
  125. Upchurch, G.R. and Wolfe, J.A., 1993. Cretaceous vegetation of the Western Interior and adjacent regions of North America. In: Caldwell, W.G.E. and Kauffman, E.G. (eds.), Evolution of the Western Interior Basin, Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 39, 243–282.Google Scholar
  126. Venkatachalapathy, R., Chinnamani, M. and Ragothaman, V., 1994. Lower age limit for the mid-Cretaceous sediments of the Thiruchirapalli area. Abstract volume, 14th Indian Colloquium on Micropalaeontology and Stratigraphy, p. 28.Google Scholar
  127. Villamil, T., Arango, C. Orth, C.J. and Pratt, L.R., 1995 in press. High-resolution analysis of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary in Colombia: Evidence for sea-level rise, condensation and upwelling. In: Pindell, J. and Drake, C. (eds.), Tectonic Evolution of the Northern South American Passive Margin. Geological Society of America Special Paper, 32 MS pp.Google Scholar
  128. Ward, P., Kennedy, W.J., MacLeod, K.G. and Mount, J., 1991. End Cretaceous molluscan extinction patterns in Bay of Biscay K/T boundary sections: Two different patterns. Geology 19, 1181–1184.Google Scholar
  129. Watkins, D.K., Bralower, T.J., Covington, J.M. and Fischer, C.G., 1993. Biostratigraphy and paleo-ecology of the Upper Cretaceous calcareous nanno-fossils in the Western Interior Basin, North America. In: Caldwell, W.G.E. and Kauffman, E.G. (eds.), Evolution of the Western Interior Basin. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 39, 521–538.Google Scholar
  130. Wonders, A.A.H., 1992. Cretaceous planktonic fora-miniferal biostratigraphy, Leg. 122, Exmouth Plateau, Australia. In: von Rad, U., Haq, B.U. et al. (eds), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results 122, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 587–600.Google Scholar
  131. Young, K., 1974. Lower Albian and Aptian (Cretaceous) ammonites of Texas. Geoscience and Man 8, 175–228.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erle G. Kauffman
    • 1
  • Malcolm B. Hart
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of PlymouthPlymouthUK

Personalised recommendations