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Regulation of Human B Cell Activation by Follicular Dendritic Cell and T Cell Signals

Chapter
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 201)

Abstract

Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) represent a unique cell type (Nossal et al. 1968; Szakal and Hanna 1968) within the B cell follicles of the secondary lymphoid tissues. During T cell-dependent humoral immune responses, B cells undergo proliferation, somatic mutation, isotype switching, positive selection, and differentiation into memory B cells and plasma cells within the FDC networks (Berek 1992; Kosco and Gray 1992; Kroese et al. 1987; Liu et al. 1992; Maclennan 1994; Nossal 1992). The close physical contact between FDC and B cells that occurs when B cells undergo dramatic phenotypic and genetic changes suggests that FDC may be directly involved in all these events. Based on the histological observations depicted in Fig. 1, follicular B cell response can be divided into three distinct stages, in which different B cell events occur:
  1. 1.
    Exponential growth of germinal center precursor cells within the primary follicles. Germinal center reaction is initiated by the rapid proliferation of about
    three precursor cells Kroese et al. 1987; Liu et al. 1991; Jacob end Kelsoe 1992), giving rise to a germinal center containing about 1.4 x 104 cells after 4 days of immunization (Liu at al. 1991.
     
  2. 2.A

    A fully developed germinal center has e dark zone and a light zone. Centroblasts in the dark zone proliferate and mutate (Berek et al. 1991; Jacob et al. 1991; Koppers et al. 1993; McHeyzer-Williams et al. 1993). They give rise to non-proliferating cemrocytes in the light zone. The high-affinity centrocytes ore positively selected (Weiss et al. 1992) by antigens deposited on FIDC end differentiates 1o either memory B cells (MCHevzer-Wiumms et al. 199. 1; Schittek and Rajewsky 1992; Weiss and Rajewsky 1990) or plasma cells (Kosco et al. 1989. The low-affinity centrooytes which have failed to be selected die by apoptosio(Liu et al. 1989).

     
  3. 3.

    After 3-4 weeks of immunization, fully developed germinal 6entena are replaced by small follicular foci which consist of a few antigen-specific B blasts associated with immune complex networks (Liu et al. 18B1). These foci may represent the chronic stimulation of memory B cells, which are fundamental for the rnain1ainenoe of serum imrnunoglobulin (lg) level (Tew et al. 1980) and long-lived memory B cell clones (Gray and Smarvall 1988).

     

Keywords

Germinal Center CD40 Ligand Follicular Dendritic Cell Dark Zone Light Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Schering-Plough, Laboratory for Immunological ResearchDardilly CedexFrance

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