Advertisement

Introduction

  • Kenichi Iga
  • Susumu Kinoshita
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 30)

Abstract

In this chapter we will outline the theory of semiconductor laser devices, and summarize the associated fabrication technology and their importance in opto-electronics. A brief history of semiconductor lasers will be given along with a description of current applications.

Keywords

Coherence Length Semiconductor Laser Resonance Wavelength Temporal Coherence Distribute Bragg Reflector 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.1
    H.K.V. Lotsch: Optik 26, 112 and 181 (1967)Google Scholar
  2. 1.2
    Y. Suematsu, K. Iga: Introduction to Optical Fiber Communications, 3rd edn. (Ohm-sha, Tokyo 1989) [Engl. Trans, of 1st edn. was published by Wiley, New York 1982]Google Scholar
  3. 1.3
    H.C. Casey Jr., M.B. Panish: Heterostructure Lasers (Academic, New York 1978)Google Scholar
  4. 1.4
    R.N. Hall, G.E. Fenner, J.D. Kingsley, T.J. Soltys, R.O. Carlson: Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 366 (1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 1.5
    T.M. Quist, R.H. Rediker, R.J. Keyes, W.E. Krag, B. Lax, A.L. McWhorter, H.J. Zeiger: Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 92 (1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 1.6
    M.I. Nathan, W.P. Dumke, G. Burns, F.H. Dill Jr., G. Lasher: Appl. Phys. Ltt. 1, 62(1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 1.7
    N. Holonyak Jr., S.F. Bevacqua: Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 82 (1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 1.8
    L. Solymar, D. Walsh: Lectures on the Electrical Proprties of Materials, 3rd edn. (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 1984) Sect. 9.19Google Scholar
  9. 1.9
    T. Ikegami, Y. Suematsu: IEEE Proc., 55, 122 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 1.10
    I. Hayashi, M.B. Panish, P.W. Foy, S. Sumski: Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 109 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 1.11
    Zh. I. Alferov, V.M. Andreev, D.Z. Garbuzov, Yu.V. Zhilyaev, E.P. Morozov, E.L. Portnoi, V.G. Trofim: Fiz. Tekh. Poluprov. 4, 1826 (1970)Google Scholar
  12. 1.12
    I. Hayashi, IEEE Trans. ED-31, 1630 (1984)Google Scholar
  13. 1.13
    G. Lasher, F. Stern: Phys. Rev. A 133, 553 (1964)ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 1.14
    M.H. Pilkuhn, H. Rupprecht: Solid-State Electron. 7, 905 (1964)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 1.15
    Y. Nannichi: J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1499 (1965)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 1.16
    W.W. Anderson, IEEE J. QE-1, 228 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 1.17
    B.S. Goldstein, et al.: IEEE Proc. 53, 195 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 1.18
    J. Takamiya, F. Kitasawa, J. Nishizawa: IEEE Proc. (Lett.) 56 135 (1968)Google Scholar
  19. 1.19
    T. Ikegami, Y. Suematsu: Trans. IECE Jpn. B 51, 57 (1968)Google Scholar
  20. 1.19a
    T. Ikegami, Y. Suematsu: IEEE J. QE-4, 148 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 1.20
    J.C. Dyment: Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 84 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 1.21
    W. Susaki: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 977 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 1.22
    H. Kressel, H.P. Mierop: J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5419 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 1.23
    H. Haug: Phys. Rev. 184, 338 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 1.24
    N.G. Basov, V.V. Nikitin, A.S. Semenov: Usp. Fiz. Nauk 97, 561 (1969) [Sov. Phys.-Uspekhi 12 219 (1969)]Google Scholar
  26. 1.25
    H. Kressel, H. Nelson: RCA Rev. 30, 106 (1969)Google Scholar
  27. 1.26
    J.E. Ripper, T.L. Paoli: Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 466 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 1.27
    T. Ikegami, K. Kobayashi, Y. Suematsu: Trans. IECE Jpn. B 53, 53 (1970)Google Scholar
  29. 1.27a
    T. Ikegami, Y. Suematsu: Trans. IECE Jpn. B 53 513 (1970)Google Scholar
  30. 1.28
    T.P. Lee, R.H.R. Roldan: IEEE J. QE-6, 339 (1970)Google Scholar
  31. 1.29
    C.J. Hwang: Phys. Rev. B 2, 4117 and 4126 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 1.30
    H. Kroemer: IEEE Proc. 51, 1782 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 1.31
    W. Susaki, T. Sogo, T. Oku: IEEE J. QE-4, 422 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 1.32
    I. Hayashi, M.B. Panish, F.K. Reinhart: J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1929 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 1.33
    T. Ikegami: IEEE J. QE-8, 470 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 1.34
    M.B. Panish, H.C. Casey Jr., S. Sumski, P.W. Foy: Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 590 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 1.35
    Y. Suematsu, M. Yamada: Trans. IECE Jpn. C 57, 434 (1975)Google Scholar
  38. 1.36
    K. Peterman: 7th Europ. Conf. Optical Commun. No.10.1 (1981)Google Scholar
  39. 1.37
    W.T. Tsang, R.A. Logan, J.A. Ditzenberger: Electron. Lett. 18, 845 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 1.38
    D.R. Scifres, C. Lindstrom, R.D. Burnham, W. Streofer, T.L. Paoli: Electron. Lett. 19, 169 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 1.39
    Y. Suematsu: IEEE Proc. 71, 692 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 1.40
    I. Hayashi: IEEE Trans. ED-31, 1630 (1984)Google Scholar
  43. 1.41
    W.W. Chow, S.W. Koch, M. Sargent III: Semiconductor-Laser Physics (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 1.42
    N.W. Carlson: Monolithic Diode-Laser Arrays, Springer Ser. Electron. Photon., Vol.33 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Long-Wavelength Lasers

  1. 1.43
    F.P. Kapron, D.B. Keck, R.D. Maurer: Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 423 (1970)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 1.44
    J.J. Hsieh, J.A. Rossi, J.P. Donnelly: Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 709 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 1.45
    A.P. Bogatov, L.M. Dolginov, P.G. Eliseev, M.G. Milvidskii, B.N. Sverdlov, E.G. Shevchenko: Sov. Phys. — Semicond. 9, 1282 (1975)Google Scholar
  4. 1.46
    K. Oe, K. Sugiyama: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 740 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 1.47
    T.P. Pearsall, B.I. Miller, R.J. Capik, K.J. Bachmann: Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 499 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 1.48
    T. Yamamoto, K. Sakai, S. Akiba, Y. Suematsu: Electron. Lett. 13, 142 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 1.49
    K. Oe, S. Ando, K. Sugiyama: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1273 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 1.50
    Y. Itaya, Y. Suematsu, K. Iga: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1057 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 1.51
    K. Wakao, K. Moriki, T. Kambayashi, K. Iga: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 2073 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 1.52
    Zh. I. Alferov, A.T. Gorelenok, P. Kopiev, V.N. Mdivani, V.K. Tibilov: Pisma Zh.Tekh.Fiz. 3 1169(1977)Google Scholar
  11. 1.53
    M.A. Pollack, R.E. Nahory, J.C. DeWinter, A.A. Ballmann: Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 314(1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 1.54
    T. Yamamoto, K. Sakai, S. Akiba, Y. Suematsu: IEEE J. QE-14, 95 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 1.55
    Y. Itaya, Y. Suematsu, S. Katayama, K. Kishino, S. Arai: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1795 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 1.56
    S.D. Hersee, A.C. Carter, R.C. Goodfellow, G. Hawkins, I. Griffith: Solid-State Electron. Dev. 3, 179 (1979)Google Scholar
  15. 1.57
    R.J. Nelson: Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 654 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 1.58
    R.E. Nahory, M.A. Pollack: Electron. Lett. 14, 727 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 1.59
    T. Yamamoto, K. Sakai, S. Akiba: IEEE J. QE-15, 684 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 1.60
    K. Mizuishi, M. Hirao, S. Tsuji, H. Sato, M. Nakamura: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, L429 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 1.61
    H. Imai, M. Morimoto, H. Ishikawa, K. Hori, M. Takusagawa: Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 16 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 1.62
    E. Oomura, T. Murotani, H. Higuchi, H. Namizaki, W. Susaki: IEEE J. QE-17, 646 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 1.63
    A.G. Steventon, R.E. Spillet, R.E. Hobbs, M.G. Burt, P.J. Fiddyment, J.V. Collins: IEEE J. QE-17, 602 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 1.64
    K. Iga, B.I. Miller: Electron. Lett. 16, 830 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 1.65
    M. Hirao, S. Stujii, K. Mizushima, A. Doi, M. Nakamura: J. Opt. Commun. 1, 10 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 1.66
    J.J. Hsieh, C.C. Shen: Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 429 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 1.67
    K. Kishino, Y. Suematsu, Y. Itaya: Electron. Lett. 15, 134 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 1.68
    K. Moriki, K. Wakao, M. Kitamura, K. Iga, Y. Suematsu: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19, 2191 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 1.69
    H. Nishi, M. Yano, Y. Nishitani, Y. Akita, M. Takusagawa: Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 232 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 1.70
    R.J. Nelson, P.D. Wright, P.A. Barnes, R.L. Brown, T. Cella, R.G. Sobers: Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 358 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 1.71
    I. Mito, M. Kitamura, K. Kobayashi: Opt. Fiber Commun., Phoenix, AZ (1982) Paper ThBB2Google Scholar
  30. 1.72
    T. Horikoshi, T. Kobayashi, Y. Furukawa: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2237 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 1.73
    D. Botez, G.J. Herskowitz: IEEE Proc. 68, 689 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 1.74
    M. Nakamura, S. Tsujii: IEEE J. QE-17, 994 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 1.75
    P. Marshall, E. Schlosser, C. Wolk: Electron. Lett. 15, 38 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 1.76
    S. Akiba, K. Sakai, T. Yamamoto: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1899 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 1.77
    S. Arai, Y. Suematsu, Y. Itaya: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 709 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 1.78
    G.D. Henshall, P.D. Greene: Electron. Lett. 15, 621 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 1.79
    S. Akiba, K. Sakai, Y. Matsushima, T. Yamamolto: Electron. Lett. 15, 606 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 1.80
    H. Kawaguchi, T. Takahei, Y. Toyoshima, H. Nagai, G. Iwane: Electron Lett. 15, 669 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 1.81
    S. Arai, M. Asada, Y. Suematsu, Y. Itaya: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2333 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 1.82
    I.P. Kaminow, R.E. Nahory, M.A. Pollack. L.W. Stulz, J.C. DeWinter: Electron. Lett. 15, 763 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 1.83
    K. Iga, Y. Suematsu: 1st Europ. Conf. Integr. Opt., London (1981) p.70Google Scholar
  42. 1.84
    H. Kogelnik, C.V. Shank: Appl. Phys. Lett. 18 152 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 1.85
    I.P. Kaminow, H.P. Weber: Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 497 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 1.86
    M. Nakamura, A. Yariv, H.W. Yen, S. Somekh, H.L. Garvin: Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 515 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 1.87
    F.K. Reinhart, R.A. Logan: Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 45 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 1.88
    M. Nakamura, K. Aiki, J. Umeda, A. Yariv: Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 403 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 1.89
    H.C. Casey Jr., S. Somekh, M. Ilegems: IEEE Trans. ED-22, 1060 (1975)Google Scholar
  48. 1.90
    D.R. Scifres, R.D. Burnham, W. Streifer: Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 295 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 1.91
    W. Tsang, S. Wang: 9th Int’l Quantum Electron. Conf. (Kanazawa 1976) p. 38Google Scholar
  50. 1.92
    H. Kawanishi, Y. Suematsu, Y. Itaya, S. Arai: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1439 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 1.93
    A. Doi, T. Fukuzawa, M. Nakamura, R. Ito, K. Aiki: Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 441 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 1.94
    Y. Suematsu, M. Yamada, K. Hayashi: IEEE Proc. 63, 208 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 1.95
    F.K. Reinhart, R.A. Logan, C.V. Shank: Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 45 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 1.96
    C.E. Hurwitz, J.A. Ross, J.J. Hsieh, C.M. Wolf: Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 241 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 1.97
    K. Aiki, M. Nakamura, J. Umeda: Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 506 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Short-Wavelength Lasers

  1. 1.98
    R.D. Burnham, N. Holonyak Jr., D.L. Keune, D.R. Scifres: Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 160 (1971)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 1.99
    Zh. I. Alferov, I.N. Arsent’ev, D.Z. Garbuzov, S.G. Konnikov, V.D. Rumyantsev: Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 1, 147 (1975)Google Scholar
  3. 1.100
    H. Kressel, G.H. Olsen, C.J. Nuese: Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 249 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 1.101
    T. Mukai, H. Yajima, J. Shimada: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, L729 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 1.102
    T. Suzuki, I. Hino, A. Gomyo, K. Nishida: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, L731 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 1.103
    Y. Kawamura, H. Asahi, N. Nagai, T. Ikegami: Electron. Lett. 19, 931 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 1.104
    A. Fujimoto, H. Watanabe, M. Takeuchi, M. Shimura: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L720 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 1.105
    A. Usui, T. Matsumoto, M. Inai, I. Mito, K. Kobayashi, H. Watanabe: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L163 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 1.106
    K. Kishino, Y. Kaneka, A. Harada: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L358 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 1.107
    K. Kobayashi, S. Kawata, A. Gomyo, I. Hino, T. Suzuki: Electron. Lett. 21, 931(1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 1.108
    M. Ikeda, Y. Mori, H. Sato, K. Kaneko, N. Watanabe: Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1027 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 1.109
    M. Ishikawa, Y. Ohba, H. Sugawara, M. Yamamoto, T. Nakanishi: Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 207 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 1.110
    J.P. Andre, E. Dupont-Nivet, D. Monori, J.N. Patillon, M. Erman, T. Ngo: J. Cryst. Growth 77, 354 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 1.111
    K. Nakano, M. Ikeda, A. Toda, C. Kojima: Electron. Lett. 23, 894 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 1.112
    K. Iga, H. Uenohara, F. Koyama: Electron. Lett. 22, 1008 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 1.113
    K. Kishino, A. Kikuchi, Y. Kaneka, I. Nomura: Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1822 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 1.114
    J. Rennie, M. Okajima, M. Watanabe, G. Hatakoshi: 13th IEEE Semicond. Laser Conf., Takamatsu (1992) Tech. Digest. No.G-4, 158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 1.115
    T. Kamizono, S. Arimoto, H. Watanabe, K. Kodoiwa, E. Omura, S. Kakimoto, K. Ikeda: 13th IEEE Semicond. Laser Conf., Takamatsu (1992) Tech. Digest. No.D-30, 94Google Scholar
  19. 1.116
    H. Hamada, K. Tominaga, M. Shono, S. Honda, K. Yodoshi, T. Yamaguchi: Electron. Lett. 28, 1834 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 1.117
    A. Vlaster, C.J. van der Poel, M.N. Finke, M.J.B. Boermanns: 13th IEEE Semicond. Laser Conf., Takamatsu (1992) Tech. Digest No. G-1, 152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 1.118
    R.G. Hunsperger: Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology, 4th edn. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1995)Google Scholar
  22. 1.119
    T. Tamir (ed.): Guided-Wave Optolectronics, 2nd edn., Springer Ser. Electron. Photonics, Vol.26 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1990) Chap.5Google Scholar
  23. 1.120
    H. Kressel (ed.): Semiconductor Devices for Optical Communication, 2nd edn., Topics Appl. Phys., Vol.39 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1982) Chap.2Google Scholar
  24. 1.121
    K.J. Ebeling: Integrated Optoelectronics. Waveguides, Photonics, Semiconductors (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1993)Google Scholar
  25. 1.112
    K. Fukagai, S. Ishikawa, K. Endo, H. Fujii, T. Yuasa: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L371 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 1.122
    M.C. Wu, Y.K. Chen, M. Hong, J.P. Mannaerts, M.A. Chin, A.M. Sergent: Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1046 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 1.124
    M.A. Haase, J. Qui, J.M. Depuydt, H. Cheng: Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 1.124
    M. Ozawa, H. Okumima, Y. Morinaga, F. Hiei, K. Akimoto: 13th IEEE Semicond. Laser, Takamatsu (1992) Postdeadline paper, No. PD-16, 31Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenichi Iga
    • 1
  • Susumu Kinoshita
    • 1
  1. 1.Precision and Intelligence LaboratoryTokyo Institute of TechnologyMidori-ku, Yokohama 226Japan

Personalised recommendations