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Grundlagen immunologischer Vorgänge beim Plattenepithelkarzinom im Kopf-Hals-Bereich — Diagnostik und Ursachen

  • T. P. U. Wustrow
Conference paper
Part of the Verhandlungsbericht 1995 der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie book series (VBDG HNO, volume 1995 / 1)

Zusammenfassung

Mehr als 80% aller malignen Erkrankungen im KopfHals-Bereich sind Plattenepithelkarzinome. Patienten mit solchen Tumoren zeigen klinisch einen sehr unterschiedlichen Verlauf: Einige entwickeln erst im fortgeschrittenen Stadium regionäre und/oder Fernmetastasen bzw. erholen sich auch nach großen chirurgischen Eingriffen wieder sehr schnell, während andere bei sehr kleinen Tumoren und gleicher Lokalisation schon sehr früh regionäre Metastasen aufweisen oder sich unter der Behandlung fulminant in bezug auf das Tumorwachstum, ein Rezidiv oder eine Metastasierung verschlechtern. Entsprechend dem Konzept der Immunüberwachung nach Thomas, welches von Burnet [119, 120] weiter ausgeführt wurde, sollen neoplastische Zellen häufig und ständig entstehen; Tumoren können sich jedoch erst dann entwickeln, wenn das Immunsystem so geschwächt ist, daß die maligne entarteten Zellen sich der Kontrolle des Immunsystems entziehen. Dieses Konzept ist allerdings in der immunologischen Literatur bis heute nicht unwidersprochen geblieben.

Abkürzungen

CD

„cluster of differentiation“ entsprechend der Nomenklatur des First International Workshop on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (1982)

CSF

Kolonie-stimulierender Faktor

CTL

zytotoxische T-Zellen

HNO

Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde

IFN

Interferon

IL

Interleukin

IL-2R

Interleukin-2 Rezeptor

LPS

bakterielles Lipopolysaccharid aus E. coli

MAK

monoklonale Antikörper

MHC

Haupthistokompatibilitätsantigen („major histocompatibility antigen“)

MTT

3-(4,5-Dimethythiazol-2-yl)2,5-„diphenyltetrazolium bromid“

NK-Zellen

natürliche Killerzellen

PBM

mononukleäre Zellen aus dem peripheren Blut („peripheral blood mononuclear cells“)

SRBC

Schafserythrozyten („sheep red blood cells“)

Staph A

Staphylococcus aureus (Cowan strain I)

TGF

transformierender Wachstumsfaktor („Transforming growth factor“)

TIL

tumorinfiltrierende Lymphozyten

TNF

Tumornekrosefaktor

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