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Die Schleimhaut der oberen Atemwege — Zur Pathophysiologie der Entzündung

  • Claus Bachert
Conference paper
Part of the Verhandlungsbericht 1995 der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie book series (VBDG HNO, volume 1995 / 1)

Zusammenfassung

Entzündungen der Schleimhäute von Nase, Nasennebenhöhlen und Rachen — insbesondere die allergische und virale Rhinosinusitis — gehören zu den häufigsten Erkrankungen des Menschen überhaupt. Der obere Atemtrakt ist infolge seiner Filterfunktion den Erregern, festen Partikeln und Gasen in der Atemluft in hohem Maße exponiert und stellt eine wesentliche Kontaktfläche des Körpers zur Umwelt dar. Ein Fachgebiet, zu dessen Aufgaben die Behandlung von Erkrankungen der Schleimhäute des oberen Atemtrakts gehört, muß sich mit der Immunologie der Körperabwehr sowie der Entzündungen grundlegend beschäftigen.

Abkürzungen

Abkürzungen

APC

antigenpräsentierende Zelle

C-C-Proteine

Klasse der Chemokine mit direkter Verbindung der ersten beiden Zysteine

CAM

„cell adhesion molecule“, Zelladhäsionsmolekül

CD

„cluster of differentiation“; einheitliche Nomenklatur für Oberflächenrezeptoren

c-kit ligand

Bezeichnung für den Stammzellfaktor

CLA

„cutaneous lymphocyte antigen“

CSF

koloniestimulierender Faktor

CTAP III

bindegewebsaktivierendes Protein, Chemokin

CTMC

„connective tissue mast cell“, Bindegewebs-mastzelle (Ratte)

C-X-C-Proteine

Klasse der Chemokine ohne direkte Verbindung der ersten beiden Zysteine

ECP

Eosinophilen-kationisches Protein

ELAM

„endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule“ (E-Selektin)

ELISA

„enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay“

Fcε-R

Rezeptor für IgE-Antikörper

G-CSF

Granulozytenkolonie-stimulierender Faktor

GlyCAM

Glycoprotein-CAM

GM-CSF

Granulozytenmakrophagenkoloniestimulieren-der Faktor

gp130

130 kDa schweres Rezeptorprotein; Teil des IL-6R

gro

zur C-X-C-Klasse gehörendes Chemokin

HEV

„high endothelial venules“

HRF

„histamine releasing factor“

HRV

humane Rhinoviren (RNA-Viren)

ICAM

„intercellular adhesion molecule“

IFN

Interferon

Ig

Immunglobulin

IgSF

Immunglobulin-Supergen-Familie

IL

Interleukin

kDa

Kilo-Dalton, Einheit des Molekulargewichts

LAD

„leucocyte adhesion deficite“

LAK

„lymphokine-activated killer cells“

LFA

„lymphocyte function-associated antigen“, Adhäsionsmolekül

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide; als Endotoxin wirkende, an die Membranoberfläche gramnegativer Bakterien gebundene Moleküle

LT

Leukotrien

MAdCAM

„mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule“

MALT

„mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue“, Schleim-haut-assoziiertes lymphatisches Gewebe

M-CSF

Makrophagenkolonie-stimulierender Faktor

MBP

„major basic protein“

MCTC

Mastzelle mit Tryptase- und Chymase-produktion (Mensch)

MCT

Tryptase-freisetzende Mastzelle (Mensch)

MCP

Monozyten-chemotaktisches Protein

MGSA

Melanozytenwachstum-stimulierende Aktivität (gro)

MHC

„major histocompatibility complex“, Haupthistokompatibilitätskomplex

MIP

Makrophagen-inhibierendes Protein

MMC

„mucosal mast cell“, Schleimhautmastzelle (Ratte)

NAP

Neutrophilen-aktivierendes Protein

NK

„natural killer cells“

PAF

Plättchen-aktivierender Faktor

PCR

„polymerase chain reaction“, Polymeraseketten-reaktion

PECAM

„platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule“

PG

Prostaglandin

RANTES

„released upon activation“, „normal T-cell expressed and secreted“ (Chemokin)

RIA

„radioimmunoassay“

SCF

Stammzellfaktor (Synonyme: „2c-kit ligand“, „steel factor“)

SCID

„severe combined immunodeficiency“, schwerer kombinierter Immundefekt

TGF

„transforming-growth-factor“

TH1,TH2

Bezeichnung für CD4+T-Lymphozyten, die sich nach dem Muster ihrer Zytokinproduktion unterscheiden

TNF

Tumornekrosefaktor

VAP

„vascular adhesion protein“

VCAM

„vascular cell adhesion molecule“

VLA

„very late antigen“, Adhäsionsmolekül

Übergeordnete Abkürzungen

s

„soluble“, löslich

h

„human“, menschlich

r

rekombinant

R

Rezeptor

Ra

Rezeptorantagonist

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claus Bachert
    • 1
  1. 1.Hals-Nasen-Ohren-KlinikMedizinische Einrichtungen der Heinrich-Heine-Universität DüsseldorfDüsseldorfDeutschland

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