Oral Route of Peptide and Protein Drug Delivery
Designing means to deliver peptide and protein drugs successfully to the systemic circulation by the oral route has been a challenge to scientists in drug delivery for many years . The barriers to peptide and protein absorption from the gastrointestinal tract are well known. There are the enzymatic and penetration barriers [2–4]. Of the two, the enzymatic barrier historically has received more attention and appears to be the rate-limiting step in the intestinal penetration of small peptides such as leucine enkephalin and its analogs . Numerous investigations have focused on the use of protease inhibitors, notably aprotinin [6–8], soy bean trypsin inhibitor [8–10], and amastatin  and on the use of formulations, notably microparticulates  to protect the encapsulated peptide and protein drugs from luminal proteases.
KeywordsProtein Drug Hepatic Extraction Penetration Enhancer Paracellular Pathway Peptide Drug
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