Advertisement

Transcription of Adenovirus RNA Polymerase III Genes

  • R. Pruzan
  • S. J. Flint
Part of the Current Topics in 199/I Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 199/1)

Abstract

Eukaryotic RNA polymerase (RNAp) III is responsible for synthesis of abundant, low molecular mass RNA species, including tRNA, 5S rRNA, and U6 snRNA (see Roeder 1976; Geiduschek and Tocchini-Valentini 1988). Although they are noncoding, RNAp III transcripts participate in such essential processes as translation, RNA processing, and protein targeting (see Rich and Raj Bhandary 1976; Guthrie and Patterson 1988; Dreyfuss et al. 1988; Steitz et al. 1988; Wolin and Walter 1991; Young 1991). Transcription of a viral genome by RNAp III was first recognized 20 years ago, when it was established that a small RNA specific to adenovirus-infected cells, virus-associated (VA) RNA (Reich et al. 1966), is synthesized by this enzyme. All adenovirus genomes examined to date encode at least one VA RNA species. Investigation of the organization of the transcriptional control regions of these viral RNAp III genes made an important contribution to the unexpected discovery of the intragenic location of elements of RNAp III promoters. As discussed in this review, the VA RNA I promoter of subgroup C adenoviruses, which is exceptionally active in in vitro systems, has provided an important model for investigation of the mechanism of initiation of transcription by this RNA polymerase. Elucidation of the part played by VA RNA I during adenovirus infection has, moreover, identified a previously unknown mechanism by which viruses can evade cellular defence systems.

Keywords

tRNA Gene Transcription Unit Adenovirus Type TATA Element Transcriptional Control Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akusjärvi G, Mathews MB, Andersson P, Vennströmm B, Pettersson U (1980) Structure of genes for virus-associated RNAI and RNAII of adenovirus type 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 2424–2428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartholomew B, Kassavetis GA, Braun BR, Geiduschek EP (1990) The subunit structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor IIIC probed with a novel photo-crosslinking reagent EMBO J 9: 2197–2205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartholomew B, Kassavetis GA, Geiduschek EP (1991) The components of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor NIB are stereospecifically located upstream of a tRNA gene and interact with the second-largest subunit of TFIIIC. Mol Cell Biol 11: 5181–5189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bentley DL, Brown WL, Groudine M (1989) Accurate TATA-box dependent polymerase III transcription from promoters of the c-myc gene in injected Xenopus oocytes Genes Dev 3: 1179–1189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berger SL, Folk WR (1985) Differential activation of RNA polymerase Ill-transcribed genes by the polyomavirus enhancer and the adenovirus E1A gene products. Nucleic Acids Res 13: 1413–1428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berk AJ (1986) Adenovirus promoters and E1A transactivation. Annu Rev Genet 20: 45–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhat RA, Thimmappaya B (1983) Two small RNAs encoded by Epstein-Barr virus can functionally substitute for the virus-associated RNAs in the lytic growth of adenovirus 5. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80: 4789–4793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhat RA, Thimmappaya B (1984) Adenovirus mutants with DNA sequence perturbations in the intragenic promoter of VA I RNA gene allow the enhanced transcription of VAI I RNA gene in HeLa cells Nucleic Acids Res 12: 7377–7388Google Scholar
  9. Bhat RA, Metz B, Thimmappaya B (1983) Organization of the noncontiguous promoter components of adenovirus VA I RNA gene is strikingly similar to that of eukaryotic tRNA genes. Mol Cell Biol 3:1996–2005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhat RA, Domer PH, Thimmappaya B (1985) Structural requirements of adenovirus VA I RNA for its translation enhancement function. Mol Cell Biol 5:187–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bogenhagen DF, Brown DD (1981) Nucleotide sequences in Xenopus 5S DNA required for transcription termination. Cell 24: 261–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bogenhagen DF, Sakonju S, Brown DD (1980) A control region in the center of the 5S RNA gene directs specific initiation of transcription II. The 3’ border of the region. Cell 19: 27–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cannon RE, Wu G-J, Railey JF (1986) Functions of and interactions between the A and B blocks in the adenovirus type 2-specific VA RNA I gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA 83: 1285–1289Google Scholar
  14. Carey M, Gerrard SP, Cozzarelli NR (1986) Analysis of RNA polymerase III transcription complexes by gel filtration. J Biol Chem 261: 4309–4317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Celma ML, Pan J, Weissman SM (1977a) Studies of low molecular weight RNA from cells infected with adenovirus 2. II. Heterogeneity at the 5’ end of VA-RNA I. J Biol Chem 252: 9043–9046PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Celma ML, Pan J, Weissman SM (1977b) Studies of low molecular RNA from cells infected with adenovirus 2. I. The sequences at the 3’ end of VA-RNA I J Biol Chem 252: 9032–9042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Challberg MD, Kelly TJ (1989) Animal virus DNA replication. Annu Rev Biochem 58: 671–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chatterjee PK, Pruzan RP, Flint SJ (1993) Purification of an active TATA-binding protein-containing factor using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the human TATA-binding protein. Protein Expr Purif 4: 445–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chiang C-M, Ge H, Wang Z, Hoffman A, Roeder RG (1993) Unique TATA-binding protein-containing complexes and cofactors involved in transcription by RNA polymerases II and III. EMBO J 12: 2749–2762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chow LT, Broker TR, Lewis J (1979) Complex splicing patterns of RNAs from the early regions of adenovirus-2 J Mol Biol 134: 265–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chung J, Stissman OJ, Zeller R, Leder P (1987) The c-myc gene encodes superimposed RNA polymerase II and III promoters. Cell 51: 1001–1008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Comai L, Tanese N, Tjian R (1992) The TATA-binding protein and associated factors are integral components of the RNA polymerase I transcription factor, SL1. Cell. 68: 965–976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cormack BP, Struhl K (1992) The TATA-bindig protein is required for transcription by all three nuclear RNA polymerases in yeast cells. Cell 69: 697–702Google Scholar
  24. Dahlberg J, Lund E (1991) How does III X II make U6? Science 254: 1452–1453Google Scholar
  25. Datta S, Soong C-J, Wang DM, Harter ML (1991). A purified adenovirus 289-amino-acid E1A protein activates RNA polymerase III transcription in vitro and alters transcription factor TFIIIC. J Virol 65: 5297–5304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dean N, Berk AJ (1988) Ordering promoter binding of class III transcription factors TFIIIC1 and TFIIIC2. Mol Cell Biol 8: 3017–3025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dreyfuss G, Philipson L, Mattaj IW (1988) Ribonucleoprotein particles in cellular processes. J Cell Biol 106: 1419–1425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Engelke DR, Ng S-Y, Shastry BS, Roeder RG (1980) Specific interaction of a purified transcription factor with an internal control region of 5S RNA genes. Cell 19: 717–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Engler JA, Hoppe MS, van Bree MP (1983) The nucleotide sequence of the genes encoded in early region 2b of human adenovirus type 7. Gene 21: 145–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Flint SJ (1986) Regulation of adenovirus mRNA formation. Adv Virus Res 31: 169–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Flint SJ, Shenk T (1989) Adenovirus E1A protein: paradigm viral transactivator. Annu Rev Genet 23: 141–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Föhring B, Geis A, Kronly M, Raska KJ (1979) Adenovirus type 12 VA RNA. Virology 95: 295–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fowlkes DM, Shenk T (1980) Transcriptional control regions of the adenovirus VAI RNA gene. Cell 22: 405–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fuhrman SA, Engelke DR, Geiduschek EP (1984) HeLa cell RNA polymerase III transcription factors. Functional characterization of a fraction identified by its activity in a second template rescue assay. J Biol Chem 259: 1934–1943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gabrielsen OS, Sentenac A (1991) RNA polymerase lll(C) and its transcription factors. Trends Biochem Sci 16: 412–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gaynor RS, Feldman LT, Berk AJ (1985) Transcription of class III genes activated by viral immediate early proteins. Science 230: 447–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Geiduschek EP, Tocchini-Valentini GP (1988) Transcription by RNA polymerase III. Annu Rev Biochem 57: 873–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Goldenberg CJ, Rosenthal R, Bhaduri S, Raskas HJ (1981) Coordinate regulation of two cytoplasmic RNA species transcribed from early region 2 of the adenovirus 2 genome. J Virol 38: 932–939PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Greenblatt J (1991) Roles of TFIID in transcriptional initiation by RNA polymerase II. Cell 66: 1067–1070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Guilfoyle R, Weinmann R (1981) Control region for adenovirus VA RNA transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 3378–3382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Guthrie C, Patterson B (1988) Spliceosomal RNAs. Annu Rev Genet. 22: 387–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hernandez N (1992) Transcription of vertebrate snRNA genes and related genes. In: McKnight SL, Tjian R (eds) Transcriptional regulation. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, pp 281–313Google Scholar
  43. Hernandez N (1993) TBP, a universal eukaryotic transcription factor? Genes Dev 7: 1291–1308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoeffler WK, Roeder RG (1985) Enhancement of RNA polymerase III transcription by the E1A gene product of adenovirus. Cell 41: 955–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoeffler WK, Kovelman R, Roeder RG (1988) Activation of transcription factor TFIIIC by the adenovirus E1A protein. Cell 53: 907–920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Howe JG, Shu M-D (1989) Epstein-Barr virus small RNA (EBER) genes: unique transcription units that combine RNA polymerase II and III promoter elements. Cell 57: 825–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Howe JG, Shu M-D (1993) Upstream basal promoter element important for exclusive RNA polymerase III transcription of the EBER2 gene. Mol Cell Biol 13: 2655–2665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Huang JT, Schneider RJ (1991) Adenovirus inhibition of cellular protein synthesis involves inactivation of cap-binding protein. Cell 65: 271–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Huang W, Pruzan R, Flint SJ (1994) In vivo transcription from the adenovirus E2 early promoter by RNA polymerase III. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: (in press)Google Scholar
  50. Jaehning JA, Woods PS, Roeder RG (1977) Purification, properties and subunit structure of deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerase III from uninfected and adenovirus 2-infected KB cells. J Biol Chem 252: 8762–8771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Jones N, Shenk T (1979) An adenovirus type 5 early gene function regulates expression of other early viral genes. Pcoc Natl Acad USA 76: 3665–3669Google Scholar
  52. Kassavetis GA, Riggs DL, Negri R, Nguyen LH, Geiduschek EP (1989) Transcription factor IIIB generates extended DNA interactions in RNA polymerase III transcription complexes on tRNA genes. Mol Cell Biol 9: 2551–2556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kassavetis GA, Joazerio CPA, Pisano M, Geiduschek EP, Colbert T, Hahn S, Bianco AJ (1992) The role of the TATA-binding protein in the assembly and function of the multisubunit yeast RNA polymerase III transcription factor TFIIIB. Cell 71: 1055–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Klessig DF, Brough DE, Cleghorn VG (1984) Introduction, stable integration and controlled expression of a chimeric adenovirus gene whose product is toxic to the recipient human cells. Mol Cell Biol 4: 1354–1362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kovelman R, Roeder RG (1992) Purification and characterization of two forms of human transcription factor IIIC. J Biol Chem 267: 24, 446–24, 456Google Scholar
  56. Larsson S, Svensson C, Akusjärvi G (1986a) Characterization of low molecular weight virus-associated (VA) RNA encoded by simian adenovirus type 7, which can functionally substitute for adenovirus type 5 VA-RNA I - J Virol 60: 635–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Larsson S, Bellett A, Akusjärvi G (1986b) VA RNAs from avian and human adenoviruses: dramatic differences in length, sequence and gene location. J Virol 58: 600–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lassar AB, Martin PL, Roeder RG (1983) Transcription of class III genes: formation of preinitiation complexes. Science 222: 740–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lobo SM, Tanaka M, Sullivan ML, Hernandez N (1992) ATBP complex essential for transcription from TATA-less but not TATA-containing RNA polymerase III promoters is part of the TFIIIB fraction. Cell 71: 211–220Google Scholar
  60. Manohar CF, Kratochvil J, Thimmappaya B (1990) The adenovirus Ell early promoter has multiple E1 A- sensitive elements, two of which function cooperatively in basal and virus-induced transcription. J Virol 64: 2457–2466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Mathews MB (1975) Genes for VA RNA in adenovirus 2. Cell 6: 223–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mathews MB (1995) Structure, function, and evolution of adenovirus virus-associated RNA. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol 199/II)Google Scholar
  63. Mathews MB, Pettersson U (1978) The low molecular weight RNAs of adenovirus 2 infected cells. J Mol Biol 119: 293–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mattaj IW, Dathan NA, Parry HD, Carbon P, Krol A (1988) Changing the RNA polymerase specificity of U snRNA gene promoters. Cell 58: 55–67Google Scholar
  65. Mitchell MT, Hobson GM, Benfield PA (1992) TATA box-mediated polymerase III transcription in vitro. J Biol Chem 267: 1995–2005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Murphy S, Moorefield B, Pieler T (1989) Common mechanisms of promoter recognition by RNA polymerases II and III. Tends Genet 5: 122–126Google Scholar
  67. Ohe K, Weissman SM (1970) Nucleotide sequence of an RNA from cells infected with adenovirus 2. Science 167: 879–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Pan J, Celma ML, Weissman SM (1977) Studies of low molecular weight RNA from cells infected with adenovirus 2. III. The sequence of the promoter for VA-RNA I. J Biol Chem 252: 9047–9054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Patel G, Jones NC (1990) Activation in vitro of RNA polymerase II and III directed transcription by baculovirus produced E1A protein. Nucleic Acids Res 18: 2909–2915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Pettersson U, Philipson L (1975) Location of sequences on the adenovirus genome coding for the 5.5S RNA. Cell 6: 1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Price R, Penman S (1972) Transcription of the adenovirus genome by an alpha-amanitin-sensitive RNA polymerase in HeLa cells. J Virol 9: 621–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Pruzan R, Chatterjee PK, Flint SJ (1992) Specific transcription from the adenovirus E2E promoter by RNA polymerase III requires a subpopulation of TFIID. Nucleic Acids Res 20: 5705–5712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Railey JF, Wu GJ (1988) Organization of multiple regulatory elements in the control region of the adenovirus type 2-specific VA RNA I gene: fine mapping with linker-scanning mutants. Mol Cell Biol 8: 1147–1159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Reich PR, Forget BG, Weissman SM, Rose JA (1966) RNA of low molecular weight in KB cells infected with adenovirus type 2. J Mol Biol 17: 428–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rich A, RajBhandary UL (1976) Transfer RNA; molecular structure, sequence and properties. Annu Rev Biochem 45: 805–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Rigby PWJ (1993) Three is one and one in three: it all depends on TBP. Cell 72: 7–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Roeder RG (1976) Eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases In: Losick R, Chamberlin M (eds) RNA polymerase. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, pp 285–329Google Scholar
  78. Rohan RM, Ketner G (1987) A comprehensive collection of point mutations in the internal promoter of the adenoviral VA I gene. J Biol Chem 262: 8500–8507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Rosa MD, Gottlieb E, Lerner MR, Steitz JA (1981) Striking similarities are exhibited by two small Epstein- Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acids and adenovirus-associated ribonucleic acids VA I and VA II. Mol Cell Biol 1: 785–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sakonju S, Bogenhagen DF, Brown DD (1980) A control region in the center of the 5S RNA gene directs specific initiation of transcription 1. The 5’ border of the region. Cell 19: 13–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Schneider HR, Waldschmidt R, Seifart KH (1989) Purification of human transcription factor IIIC and its binding to the gene for ribosomal 5S RNA. Nucleic Acids Res 17: 5003–5017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Schneider HR, Waldschmidt R, Jahn D, Seifart KH (1990) Human transcription factor IIIC contains a polypeptide of 55kDa speciafically binding to Pol III genes. Nucleic Acids Res 18: 4743–4750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Schultz MC, Reeder RH, Hahn S (1992) Variants of the TATA-binding protein can distinguish subsets of RNA polymerase I, II and III promoters. Cell 69: 697–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Segall J, Matsui T, Roeder RG (1980) Multiple factors are required for the accurate transcription of purified genes by RNA polymerase III. J Biol Chem 255: 11986–11991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Sharp PA (1984) Adenovirus transcription. In: Ginsberg HS (ed) The adenovirus. Plenum, New York, pp 173–204Google Scholar
  86. Sharp PA (1992) TATA-binding protein is a classless factor. Cell 68: 819–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Shastry BS, Ng S-Y, Roeder RG (1982) Multiple factors involved in the transcription of class III genes in Xenopus laevis. J Biol Chem 257: 12,979–12,986Google Scholar
  88. Shenk TE, Flint SJ (1991) Transcriptional and transforming activités of the adenoviruses E1A proteins. Adv Cancer Res 57: 47–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Shu L, Hong JS, Wei Y-F, Engler J (1986) Nucleotide sequence of the genes encoded in early region 2b of human adenovirus type 12. Gene 46: 187–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Simmen KA, Bernues J, Lewis JD, D, Mattaj IW (1992) Confractionation of the TATA-binding protein with the RNA polymerase III transcription factor TFIIIB. Nucleic Acids Res 20: 5889–5898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Snouwaert J, Bunick D, Hutchison C, Fowlkes DM (1987) Large numbers of random point and cluster mutations within the VAI gene allow characterization of sequences required for efficient transcription. Nucleic Acids Res 15: 8293–8303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Söderlund H, Pettersson U, Vennströmm B, Philipson L, Mathews MB (1976) A new species of virus- coded, low molecular weight RNA from cells infected with adenovirus type 2. Cell 7: 585–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Sollerbrant K, Akusjärvi G, Svensson C (1993) Repression of RNA polymerase III transcription by adenovirus E1A. J Virol 67: 4195–4204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Spencer C, Groudine M (1991) Control of c-myc regulation in normal and neoplastic cells. Adv Cancer Res 56: 1–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Steitz JA, Black DL, Gerke V, Parker KA, Kramer A, Frendeway D, Keller W (1988) Functions of the abundant U snRNPs. In: Birnstiel ML (ed) Structure and function of major and minor snRNPs. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 115–154Google Scholar
  96. Taggart AKP, Fisher TS, Pugh BF (1992) The TATA-binding protein and associated factors are components of pol III transcription factor TFIIIB. Cell 71: 1015–1028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Thimmappaya B, Jones N, Shenk T (1979) A mutation which alters initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase III on the Ad5 chromosome. Cell 16: 946–954Google Scholar
  98. Timmers HTM, Sharp PA (1991) The mammalian TFI ID protein is present in two functionally distinct complexes. Genes Dev 5: 1946–1956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Timmers HTM, Meyers RE, Sharp PA (1992) Composition of transcription factor B-TFIID. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 8140–8144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. van Dyke MW, Roeder RG (1987) Multiple proteins bind to VA RNA genes of adenovirus type 2. Mol Cell Biol 7: 1021–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Varrichio F, Raska K (1976) Synthesis of VA RNA in productive and abortive infections with adenovirus type 12. Virology 71: 450–458Google Scholar
  102. Vennstrom B, Pettersson U, Philipson L (1978a) Initiation of transcription in nuclei isolated from adenovirus infected cells. Nucleic Acids Res 5: 205–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Vennström B, Pettersson U, Philipson L (1978b) Two sites for initiation of adenovirus 5.5S RNA. Nucleic Acids Res 5: 195–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Weinmann R, Raskas HJ, Roeder RG (1974) Role of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases II and III in transcription of the adenovirus genome late in productive infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71: 3426–3430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Weinmann R, Brendler HJ, Raskas HJ, Roeder RG (1976) Low molecular weight viral RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III during adenovirus 2 infection. Cell 7: 557–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. White RJ, Jackson SP (1992) Mechanism of TATA-binding protein recruitment to TATA-less class III promoter. Cell 71: 1041–1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. White RJ, Jackson SP, Rigby PWJ (1992) A role for the TATA-box-binding protein component of the transcription factor TFI ID as a general RNA polymerase III transcription factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 1949–1953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Wolin SL, Walter P (1991) Small ribonucleoproteins. Current Opin Struct Biol 1: 251–257Google Scholar
  109. Wu G-J (1978) Adenovirus DNA-directed transcription of 5.5S RNA in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 2175–2179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Wu G-J, Cannon RE (1986) Termination sequences in the control region of the Ad2-specific VA RNA 2 gene. J Biol Chem 261: 12,633–12,642Google Scholar
  111. Wu G-J, Railey JF, Cannon RE (1987) Defining the functional domains in the control region of the adenovirus type 2 specific VA RNAI gene. J Mol Biol 194: 423–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Yoshinaga S, Dean N, Han M, Berk AJ (1986) Adenovirus stimulation of transcription by RNA polymerase III. evidence for an E1A-dependent increase in transcription factor NIC concentration. Embo J 5: 343–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Yoshinaga SK, Boulanger PA, Berk AJ (1987) Resolution of human transcription factor TFIIIC into two functional components. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 3585–3589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Yoshinaga SK, L’Etoile ND, BerkAJ (1989) Purification and characterization of transcription factor III C2. J Biol Chem. 264: 10726–10731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Young HF (1991) Ribosomal RNA and translation. Annu Rev Biochem 60: 191–227Google Scholar
  116. Zieve GW, Sauterer RA (1990) Cell biology of the snRNP particles. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 25: 1–46PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Pruzan
    • 1
  • S. J. Flint
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular BiologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations