Recovery and Rehabilitation of Mediterranean Type Ecosystem: A Case Study from Turkish Maquis

  • Munir Ahmet Ozturk
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 28)

Abstract

The Mediterranean type ecosystem shows a restricted distribution as compared to other major ecosystem types of the world. Two of the typical Mediterranean ecosystems are maquis and phrygana, both being shrub formations. This vegetation type in general shows indisputable similarities in Mediterranean regions. Similarities are visible in forest formations as well as their principal stages of degradation. Studies on these ecosystems have attracted the attention of many investigators such as Akman (1982), Akman and Ketenoglu (1986), Akman et al. (1978,1979), Aschmann (1973), DiCastri and Mooney (1973), DiCastri et al. (1981), Flauhalt (1937), Kilickiran (1991), Mooney and Dunn (1970b), Mooney et al. (1970,1974b), Nahal (1981), Naveh (1971,1973,1975), Pons (1981), Specht (1969ab), Tomaselli (1974,1976), Trabaud (1981) and Zohary (1973). In these investigations, three types of studies have been followed; phyto-ecological, energy-budget ecology and an evolutionary approach. However, a complete synthesis of the results is rather difficult due to their multilingual publication as well as different approaches used in studying these heterogenous ecosystems.

Keywords

Cellulose Income Turkey Mastic Tree Stake 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamovic L. (1909) Die vegetations Verhältnisse der Balkanlander. In: Engler (ed) Die vegetation der Erde. II.W.Fischer Jena pp: 379–460Google Scholar
  2. Akman Y. (1982) Climats et bioclimats mediterraneens en Turquie. Ecologia Mediterranea 8: 73–87Google Scholar
  3. Akman Y., Ketenoglu O. (1986) The climate and vegetation of Turkey. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 89: 123–134Google Scholar
  4. Akman Y., Barbero M., and Quezel P. (1978) Contribution a l’etude de la vegetation forestiere de l’Anatolie, mediterraneen. Phytocoenologia 5: 1–79Google Scholar
  5. Akman Y., Barbero M., and Quezel. P (1979) Contribution a 1’etude de la vegetation forestiere d’Anatolie mediterraneene. Phytocoenologia 5: 189–346Google Scholar
  6. Ansin R. (1980) Floral composition of main vegetation types in east Black Sea region. D.Sc. Thesis, Karadeniz Univ., Trabzon 305 pp.Google Scholar
  7. Ansin R. (1983) Floristic regions and major vegetation types of Turkey. Journal of Forestry Fac. Karadeniz Univ. 6: 318–339Google Scholar
  8. Aschmann H. (1973) Distribution and peculiarity of Mediterranean ecosystems. In DiCastri F., Mooney H.A. (eds). Mediterranean Type Ecosystems, Origin and Structure. Springer, Berlin 7: 11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Avcioglu E. (1989) Importance and place of Eucalyptus in east mediterranean forestry. Forest Engineering Bulletin 15: 6–19Google Scholar
  10. Bekat L. (1980) Flora and vegetation of Karaburun Akdagi from aegean region. M.Sc Thesis. Ege University Science Faculty 126 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Braun-Blanquet J., Roussine N., Negre R. (1952) Les Groupements végétaux de la France Mediterraneen. CNRS, Paris 297 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Constanza R., Norton B.G., Haskell B.D. (eds.) (1992) Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management. Island Press, Washington DC 269 pp.Google Scholar
  13. DiCastri F., Goodall D.W., Specht R.L. (eds.) (1981) Mediterranean-Type Shrublands. Elsevier, Amsterdam 11: 643 pp.Google Scholar
  14. DiCastri F., Mooney H.A. (eds.) (1973) Mediterranean Type Ecosystems, Origin and Structure. Springer, Berlin 7: 405 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Flauhalt C. (1937) La distribution géographique des végétaux dans la Region mediterraeen Française. Lechevalier, Paris 178 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Gemici Y., Seemen O. (1983) Etude phytosociologique et phytoecologique de la vegetation de la montagne Yamanlar-Izmir. Journal of Science Faculty, Ege University 8: 51–65Google Scholar
  17. Geray U., Gorcelioglu E. (1983) Mixed systems in the use of agricultural and forest lands. Istanbul University Forest Faculty Journal 33: 10–26.Google Scholar
  18. Gork G. (1982) Vegetation and floral aspects of Emet Egrigoz Mountain in Kutahya. PhD Thesis, Ege University Science Faculty 119 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Hoddy E. (1988) Eucalyptus: Boon for forestry or danger for environment. Development Corporation 4Google Scholar
  20. Kilickiran S. (1991) Les possibilités d’utilisation des maquis dans la region mediterraneen de la Turquie. Journal of the Turkish Forest Research Institute 37: 61–84Google Scholar
  21. Le Houreau H.N (1981) Impact of man and his animals on mediterranean vegetation. In DiCastri F. et al. (eds.) Mediterranean Type Shrublands. Elsevier, Amsterdam 11: 479–521Google Scholar
  22. Mooney H.A., Dunn E.L. (1970b) Convergent evolution of mediterranean-climate evergreen sclerophyll shrubs. Evolution 24: 292–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mooney H.A., Dunn E.L., Shorpshire F., Song L. (1970) Vegetation comparisons between the mediterranean climatic areas of California and Chile. Flora 159: 480–496Google Scholar
  24. Mooney H.A., Parsons D.J., Kummerow J. (1974) Plant development in mediterranean climates. In Leith H. (ed.). Phenology and Seasonality Modelling. Springer, Berlin pp: 255–267Google Scholar
  25. Nahal I. (1981) The mediterranean climate from a biological view-point. In DiCastri F. et al. (eds.) Mediterranean Type Shrublands. Elsevier, Amsterdam 11: 63–86Google Scholar
  26. Naveh Z. (1971) The conservation of ecological diversity of mediterranean ecosystems. In Duffey E., Watt A.S. (eds.) The Scientific Management of Animal and Plant Communities for Conservation. Blackwell, Oxford pp:605–622Google Scholar
  27. Naveh Z. (1975) The evolutionary significance of fire in the mediterranean region. Vegetatio 29: 199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Naveh Z., Dan J. (1973) The human degradation of mediterranean landscapes in Israel. In DiCastri F., Mooney H.A. (eds.) Mediterranean Type Ecosystems, Origin and Structure. Springer, Berlin 7: 373–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ozturk M.A. (1971) Ecology of Myrtus communis in Turkish mediterranean phytogeographical region. PhD Thesis, Ege University, Science Faculty, Izmir 220 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Ozturk M.A., Secmen O., Gork G., Kondo K, Segawa H. (1983) Ecological studies on maquis elements in aegean region of Turkey. Memoirs Fac. Integ. Arts and Science. Hiroshima Univ. 8: 51–86Google Scholar
  31. Ozturk M.A., Turkan I., Yurekli K. (1989) Studies on the water relations of some maquis elements. Journal of Science Faculty, Ege University, Izmir 11: 17–24Google Scholar
  32. Ozturk M.A., Secmen O., Gemici Y., Gork G. (1990) Plants and Landscape in the Aegean Region of Turkey. Sentez Press 176 pp.Google Scholar
  33. Ozturk M.A., Gemici Y., Secmen O., Gork G. (1992) High mountain vegetation of mediterranean part of Turkey. Journal of Science Faculty, Ege University, Izmir 13: 51–59Google Scholar
  34. Ozturk M.A., Pirdal M, Turkan I, Ay G. (1993a) Ecology of Aegean Grasslands. Ege University Press, Izmir 250 pp.Google Scholar
  35. Ozturk M.A., Erdem U., Sukatar A., Secmen O., Guner H. (1993b) Coastal mediterranean plant cover and pollutants - a case study from Izmir. Okeanos’93 Colloquium, Montpellier, France. pp:l–4.Google Scholar
  36. Perelman R. (1981) Perception of mediterranean landscapes, particulary of maquis landscapes. In DiCastri F. et al. (eds). Mediterranean Type Shrublands. Elsevier, Amsterdam 11: 539–553Google Scholar
  37. Philippson A. (1922) Das mittelmeergebiet. Druck and Verlag Leipzig-BerlinGoogle Scholar
  38. Polunin O., Huxley A. (1972) Flowers of the Mediterranean. Chatto and Windus, London 260 pp.Google Scholar
  39. Pons A. (1981) The history of the mediterranean shrublands. In DiCastri F. et al. (eds.) Mediterranean Type Shrublands. Elsevier, Amsterdam 11: 132–138Google Scholar
  40. Quezel P. (1976a) Les forets du pourtour de la mediterraneen. In Forets et Maquis Mediterraneans: Ecologie, Conservation et Aménagement. Notes techniques du MAB 2 UNESCO Paris 9–35Google Scholar
  41. Quezel P. (1976b) Les chenes sclerophylles en region mediterraneene. Options Mediterr. 35: 25–29Google Scholar
  42. Quezel P. (1981) Floristic composition and phytosociological structure of sclerophyllous matorral around the mediterranean. In DiCastri F. et al. (eds.) Mediterranean Type Shrublands. Elsevier, Amsterdam 11: 107–121Google Scholar
  43. RAFEF (1992) Let Us Save Our Forests. Research Association of Rural Environment and Forestry. Kavaklidere Ankara, Turkey 12 pp.Google Scholar
  44. Rikli M. (1943) Das pflanzenkleid der Mittelmeerlander. Verlag H. Huber Bern.Google Scholar
  45. Schwarz O. (1936) Die Vegetations Verhaltnisse Westanatolien.Google Scholar
  46. Engler Seemen O. (1974) Ecology of Ceratonia siliqua. PhD Thesis. Ege University, Science Faculty, Izmir 202 pp.Google Scholar
  47. Seemen O. (1977) Studies on the flora and vegetation of Nif mountain-Izmir. D.Sc.Thesis. Ege University, Science Faculty 172 pp.Google Scholar
  48. Seemen O., Gemici Y., Bekat L., Gork G. (1986) Phrygana vegetation around Izmir. Doga Bilim Dergisi 10: 197–206Google Scholar
  49. Specht R.L. (1969a) A comparison of the sclerophyllous vegetation characteristic of mediterranean type climates in France, California and Southern Australia. I. Structure, morphology and succession. Aust. J. Bot. 17: 277–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Specht R.L. (1969b) A comparison of the sclerophyllous vegetation characteristic of mediterranean type climates in France, California and Southern Australia. II. Dry matter, energy and nutrient accumulation. Aust. J. Bot. 17: 293–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tomaselli R. (1974) Etude sur la degradation du maquis mediterraneen. Conseil de l’Europe, Strasbourg CE/NA (74) Doc. 26 (rev): 68 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Tomaselli R. (1976) La degradation du maquis mediterraneen. In Forets et Maquis Mediterraneens: Ecologie, Conservation et Aménagement. Notes Techniques du MAB 2. UNESCO, Paris pp: 35–76.Google Scholar
  53. Trabaud L. (1981) Man and fire: impacts on mediterranean vegetation. In DiCastri F. et al. (eds.) Mediterranean Type Shrublands. Elsevier, Amsterdam 11: 523–537.Google Scholar
  54. Turrill W.B. (1929) The Plant Life of the Balkan Peninsula. Oxford PressGoogle Scholar
  55. Vardar Y., Seemen O., Ozturk M.A. (1980) Some distributional problems and biological characteristics of Ceratonia in Turkey. Portugaliae Acta Biologica 16: 75–86Google Scholar
  56. Yigitoglu A.K. (1941) Importance and Place of Forestry in Turkish Economy. Publication of Agricultural Institute, Ankara 110 pp.Google Scholar
  57. Zohary M. (1973) Geobotanical foundations of the middle east. Geo Bot. Selecta, Stuttgart 3: 379 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Munir Ahmet Ozturk
    • 1
  1. 1.Science Faculty, Centre for Environmental StudiesEge UniversityBornova-IzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations