The SCID Mouse as a Tool to Bridge the Gap Between Animal and Human Responses

  • H. Van Loveren
  • Cees De Heer
Part of the Archives of Toxicology book series (TOXICOLOGY, volume 17)


Direct immunotoxicity can express itself in many different forms. Many effects are associated with morphologic changes, such as the effect of TCDD on the weight and histology of the thymus. Also changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues or lymphoid cells in the respiratory tract or the skin are often indicative of immunotoxicity. Associated with such morphological changes are often functional changes. These may range from altered antibody responses to specific antigens, e.g. tetanus toxoid or many others, to alterations in resistance to infections or tumors. Such effects of exposure to immunotoxic agents are usually readily detected with in vivo studies using experimental animals. Usually, such experiments are carried out in mice or rats. It is not easy to predict, on the basis of such studies in experimental animals, what the risk of encountering adverse effects of exposure to immunotoxicants for man would be. If human exposure does take place, the actual exposure dose is often difficult to establish, and there is an obvious restriction in potential effects that may be studied.


Tetanus Toxoid Thymus Tissue Severe Combine Immune Deficient Specific Antibody Response Fetal Thymus 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Van Loveren
    • 1
  • Cees De Heer
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Public Health and Environmental ProtectionBilthovenThe Netherlands

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