Cytokines and Neuroendocrine Hormones as Mediators of Cutaneous Immunity and Inflammation

  • T. A. Luger
  • T. Schwarz
Conference paper


Cytokines are low molecular weight proteins that are produced transiently by almost any eukaryotic cell. They exert their biological activities via interaction with specific cell surface receptors, which are expressed in relatively low numbers. There is evidence for a network of interacting cytokines, as they usually have multiple overlapping activities [10]. Cytokines may induce each other or interfere with the expression of their receptors and thus can affect cell function in a synergistic, additive or antagonistic way. The cytokine family consists of interleukins, chemokines, tumor necrosis factors, colony-stimulating factors, interferons, growth factors and suppressor factors. In this review mainly cytokines of special significance for the regulation of cutaneous immune and inflammatory responses will be discussed, whereas most other cytokines and mediators will only be mentioned briefly.


Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Immunol Today Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cell Contact Hypersensitivity Neuroendocrine Hormone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Russell SM, Keegan AD, Harada N, Nakamura Y, Noguchi M, Leland P, Friedmann MC, Miyajima A, Puri RK, Paul WE et al. (1993) Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain: a functional component of the interleukin-4 receptor [see comments]. Science 262: 1880–1883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Noguchi M, Nakamura Y, Russell SM, Ziegler SF, Tsang M, Cao X, Leonard WJ (1993) Interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain: a functional component of the interleukin-7 receptor [see comments]. Science 262: 1877–1880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ishii N, Asao H, Kimura Y, Takeshita T, Nakamura M, Tsuchiya S, Konno T, Maeda M, Uchiyama T, Sugamura K (1994) Impairment of ligand binding and growth signaling of mutant IL-2 receptor gammachains in patients with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. J Immunol 153: 1310–1317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grabstein KH, Eisenman J, Shanebeck K, Rauch C, Srinivasan S, Fung V, Beers C, Richardson J, Schoenborn MA, Ahdieh M, Johnson L, Alderson MR, Watson JD, Anderson DM, Giri JG (1994) Cloning of a T cell growth factor that interacts with the β chain of the interleukin-2 receptor. Science 264: 965–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 1.
    Adolf GR, Grell M, Scheurich P (1993) Tumor necrosis factor. In: Luger TA, Schwarz T (eds) Epidermal growth factors and cytokines. Dekker, New York, pp 63–88Google Scholar
  6. 2.
    Aebischer I, Stämpfli MR, Zürcher A, Miescher S, Urwyler A, Frey B, Luger TA, White RR, Stadler BM (1994) Neuropeptides are potent modulators of human in vitro immunoglobulin E synthesis. Eur J Immunol 24: 1908–1913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 3.
    Akira S, Taga T, Kishimoto T (1993) Interleukin-6 in biology and medicine. Adv Immunol 54: 1–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 4.
    Ambrus JLJ, Pippin J, Joseph A, Xu C, Blumenthal D, Tamayo A, Claypool K, McCourt D, Srikiatchatochorn A, Ford RJ (1993) Identification of a cDNA for a human high-molecular-weight B-cell growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 6330–6334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 5.
    Appasamy PM (1993) Interleukin-7: biology and potential clinical applications. Cancer Invest 11: 487–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 6.
    Aragane Y, Bhardway RS, Simon MM, Schwarz A, Rieman H, Luger TA, Schwarz T (1994) Detection of keratinocyte-derived interleukin-4. J Invest Dermatol 102: 586Google Scholar
  11. 7.
    Aragane Y, Riemann H, Bhardwaj RS, Schwarz A, Sawada Y, Yamada H, Luger TA, Kubin M, Trinchieri G, Schwarz T (1995) Interleukin 12 is expressed and released by human keratinocytes and epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. J Immunol 154 (in press)Google Scholar
  12. 8.
    Aversa G, Punnonen J, Cocks BG, de Waal Malefyt R, Vega FJ, Zurawski SM, Zurawski G, de Vries JE (1993) An interleukin 4 (IL-4) mutant protein inhibits both IL-4 or IL-13-induced human immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgE synthesis and B cell proliferation: support for a common component shared by IL-4 and IL-13 receptors. J Exp Med 178: 2213–2218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 9.
    Baggiolini M, Dahinden CA (1994) Chemokines in allergic inflammation. Immunol Today 15: 127–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 10.
    Balkwill FR, Burke F (1989) The cytokine network. Immunol Today 10: 299–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 11.
    Barker JN, Jones ML, Swenson CL, Sarma V, Mitra RS, Ward PA, Johnson KJ, Fantone JC, Dixit VM, Nickoloff BJ (1991) Monocyte chemotaxis and activating factor production by keratinocytes in response to IFN-gamma. J Immunol 146: 1192–1197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 12.
    Becker D, Knop J (1993) Epidermal cell-derived cytokines and delayed-type hypersensitivity. In: Luger TA, Schwarz T (eds) Epidermal growth factors and cytokines. Dekker, New York, pp 365–376Google Scholar
  17. 13.
    Bhardwaj RS, Aragane Y, Becher E, Schwarz A, Riemann H, Schwarz T, Luger TA (1994) Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone differentially regulates interleukin 10 production by human peripheral mononucler cells. J Invest Dermatol 102: 586Google Scholar
  18. 14.
    Bieber T (1992) IgE-Rezeptoren auf Langehans-Zellen. Hautarzt 43: 753–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 15.
    Bieber T (1994) FceRI on human Langerhans cells: a receptor in search of new functions. Immunol Today 15: 52–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 16.
    Birchall N, Park L, Kupper T (1988) IL-4 binds to specific cell surface receptors on human keratinocytes and induces colony stimulating factor release and HLA-DR expression. Clin Res 36: 374AGoogle Scholar
  21. 17.
    Briere F, Servet-Delprat C, Bridon JM, Saint-Remy JM, Banchereau J (1994) Human interleukin 10 induces naive surface immunoglobulin D+ (sIgD+) B cells to secrete IgG1 and IgG3. J Exp Med 179: 757–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 18.
    Brown SL, Blalock JE (1990) Neuroendocrine Immune Interactions. In: Oppenheim JJ, Shevach EM (eds) Immunophysiology, the role of cells and cytokines in immunity and inflammation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 306–319Google Scholar
  23. 19.
    Brunda MJ (1994) Interleukin-12. J Leukoc Biol 55: 280–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 20.
    Cannon JG, Tatro JB, Reichlin S, Dinarello CA (1986) Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone inhibits immunostimulatory and inflammatory actions of interleukin 1. J Immunol 137: 2232–2236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 21.
    Coffman RL, O’Garra A, Volkmann D (1990) Interleukins and interferons acting on B-lymphocytes. In: Oppenheim JJ, Shevach EM (eds) Immunophysiology; the role of cells and cytokines in immunity and inflammation. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 88–103Google Scholar
  26. 22.
    Cork MJ, Duff GW (1993) Interleukin one. In: Luger TA, Schwarz T (eds) Epidermal growth factors and cytokines. Dekker, New York, pp 19–48Google Scholar
  27. 23.
    Dinarello CA (1989) Interleukin-1 and its biologically related cytokines. Adv Immunol 44: 153–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 24.
    Dinarello CA, Thompson RC (1991) Blocking IL-1: interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in vivo and in vitro. Immunol Today 12: 404–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 25.
    Dreno B, Hallet MM, Moisan JP, Soulillou JP, Jacques Y (1989) Interleukin 2-like material in human epidermis: a ligand for the human interleukin 2-receptor 55 kD alpha chain. J Invest Dermatol 93: 78–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 26.
    Druez C, Coulie P, Uyttenhove C, Van Snick J (1990) Functional and biochemical characterization of mouse P40/IL-9 receptors. J Immunol 145: 2494–2499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 27.
    Dugas B, Renauld JC, Pene J, Bonnefoy JY, Peti Frere C, Braquet P, Bousquet J, Van Snick J, Mencia Huerta JM (1993) Interleukin-9 potentiates the interleukin-4-induced immunoglobulin (IgG, IgM and IgE) production by normal human B lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol 23: 1687–1692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 28.
    Durum SK, Oppenheim JJ, Neta R (1990) Immunophysiologic role of interleukin-1 In: Oppenheim JJ, Shevach EM (eds) Immunophysiology; the role of cells and cytokines in immunity and inflammation. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 210–225Google Scholar
  33. 29.
    Enk A, Katz SI (1992) Identification and Induction of keratinocyte-derived IL-10. J Immunol 149: 92–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 30.
    Enk AH, Angeloni VL, Udey MC, Katz SI (1993) An essential role for Langerhans cell-derived IL-1 beta in the initiation of primary immune responses in the skin. J Immunol 150: 3698–3704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 31.
    Enk AH, Katz SI (1992) Early molecular events in the induction phase of contact sensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89: 1398–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 32.
    Enk AH, Saloga J, Becker D, Mohamadzadeh M, Knop J (1994) Induction of hapten-specific tolerance by interleukin 10 in ivio. J Exp Med 179: 1397–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 33.
    Farrar MA, Schreiber RD (1993) The molecular cell biology of interferon-gamma and its receptor. Annu Rev Immunol 11: 571–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 34.
    Friedman RM (1990) Interferons. In: Oppenheim JJ, Shevach EM (eds) Immunophysiology. The role of cells and cytokines in immunity and inflammation. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 194–209Google Scholar
  39. 35.
    Gerard C, Bruyns C, Marchant A, Abramowicz D, Vandenabeele P, Delvaux A, Fiers W, Goldman M, Velu T (1993) Interleukin 10 reduces the release of tumor necrosis factor and prevents lethality in experimental endotoxemia. J Exp Med 177: 547–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 36.
    Gillitzer R, Wolff K, Tong D, Muller C, Yoshimura T, Hartmann AA, Stingl G, Berger R (1993) MCP-1 mRNA expression in basal keratinocytes of psoriatic lesions. J Invest Dermatol 101: 127–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 37.
    Grabbe S, Bruvers S, Granstein RD (1994) Interleukin 1 alpha but not transforming growth factor beta inhibits tumor antigen presentation by epidermal antigen presenting cells. J Invest Dermatol 102: 67–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 38.
    Grabbe S, Granstein RD (1994) Mechanisms of ultraviolet radiation carcinogenesis. In: Granstein RD (ed) Mechanisms of immune regulation. Karger, Basel, pp 291–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 39.
    Gubler U, Chua AO, Schoenhaut DS, Dwyer CM, McComas W, Motyka R, Nabavi N, Wolitzky AG, Quinn PM, Familletti PC, Gately MK (1991) Coexpression of two distinct genes is required to generate secreted bioactive cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88: 4143–4147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 40.
    Hanifm JM, Schneider LC, Leung DY, Ellis CN, Jaffe HS, Izu AE, Bucalo LR, Hirabayashi SE, Tofte SJ, Cantu Gonzales G, Milgrom H, Boguniewicz M, Cooper KD (1993) Recombinant interferon gamma therapy for atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 28: 189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 41.
    Henney CS (1989) Interleukin 7: effects on early events in lymphopoiesis. Immunol Today 10: 170–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 42.
    Heufler C, Topar G, Grasseger A, Stanzl U, Koch F, Romani N, Namen AE, Schuler G (1993) Interleukin 7 is produced by murine and human keratinocytes. J Exp Med 178: 1109–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 43.
    Hirano T, Akira S, Taga T, Kishimoto T (1990) Biological and clinical aspects of interleukin 6. Immunol Today 12: 443–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 44.
    Ho ASY, Liu Y, Khan TA, Hsu DH, Bazan JF, Moore KW (1993) A receptor for interleukin-10 is related interferon receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90: 11267–11271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 45.
    Holter W (1992) Regulation of interleukin 4 production and of interleukin 4-producing cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 98: 273–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 46.
    Jessup JM, Hanna N, Palaszynski E, Kripke ML (1978) Mechanisms of depressed reactivity to dinitrochlorobenzene and ultraviolet-induced tumors during ultraviolet carcinogenesis in BALB/c mice. Cell Immunol 38: 105–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 47.
    Jinquan T, Larsen CG, Gesser B, Matsushima K, Thestrup Pedersen K (1993) Human IL-10 is a chemoattractant for CD8+ T lymphocytes and an inhibitor of IL-8-induced CD4+ T lymphocyte migration. J Immunol 151: 4545–4551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 48.
    Kaplan G, Walsh G, Guido LS, Meyn P, Burkhardt RA, Abalos RM, Barker J, Frindt PA, Fajardo TT, Celona R, Cohn ZA (1992) Novel responses of human skin to intradermal granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor: Langerhans cell recruitment, keratinocyte growth, and enhanced wound healing. J Exp Med 175: 1717–1728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 49.
    Kim JM, Brannan CI, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Khan TA, Moore KW (1992) Structure of the mouse IL-10 gene and chromosomal localization of the mouse and human genes. J Immunol 148: 3618–3623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 50.
    Kirnbauer R, Köck A, Schwarz T, Urbanski A, Krutmann J, Borth W, Damm D, Shipley G, Ansel JC, Luger TA (1989) IFN-beta 2, B cell differentiation factor 2, or hybridoma growth factor (IL-6) is expressed and released by human epidermal cells and epidermoid carcinoma cell lines. J Immunol 142: 1922–1928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 51.
    Koch F, Heufler C, Kampgen E, Schneeweiss D, Bock G, Schuler G (1990) Tumor necrosis factor alpha maintains the viability of murine epidermal Langerhans cells in culture, but in contrast to granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, without inducing their functional maturation. J Exp Med 171: 159–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 52.
    Kopf M, Baumann H, Freer G, Freudenberg M, Lamers M, Kishimoto T, Zinkernagel R, Bluethmann H, Köhler G (1994) Impaired immune and acute-phase responses in interleukin-6-deficient mice. Nature 368: 339–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 53.
    Köck A, Schauer E, Schwarz T, Luger TA (1991) Human keratinocytes synthesize and release neuropeptides such as a-MSH and ACTH. In: Meltzer M, Mantovani A (eds) Cellular and cytokine networks in tissue immunity. Wiley, New York, pp 105–110Google Scholar
  58. 54.
    Leonard EJ, Yoshimura T (1990) Human monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Immunol Today 11: 97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 55.
    Lieschke GJ, Burgess AW (1992) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating fator. N Engl J Med 327: 28–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 56.
    Liu Y, Wei SHY, Ho ASY, de Waal Malefyt R, Moore KW (1994) Expression cloning ‘and characterization of a human IL-10 receptor. J Immunol 152: 1821–1829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 57.
    Longley J, Rochester C, Tyrrell L, Einarson O, Elias J (1993) Interleukin 11 (IL-11) in normal skin and sarkoidosis. J Invest Dermatol 100: 524Google Scholar
  62. 58.
    Luger TA, Krutmann J, Kirnbauer R, Urbanski A, Schwarz T, Klappacher G, Köck A, Micksche M, Malejczyk J, Schauer E, May LT, Sehgal PB (1989) IFN-beta 2/IL-6 augments the activity of human natural killer cells. J Immunol 143: 1206–1209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 59.
    Luger TA, Schauer E, Trautinger F, Krutmann J, Ansel J, Schwarz A, Schwarz T (1993) Production of immunosuppressing melanotropins by keratinocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci 680: 567–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 60.
    Luger TA, Trautinger F, Schwarz T (1993) Cytokines: therapeutic aspects for skin diseases. In: Luger TA, Schwarz T (eds) Epidermal growth factors and cytokines. Dekker, New York, pp 453–474Google Scholar
  65. 61.
    Manetti R, Gerosa F, Giudizi MG, Biagiotti R, Parronchi P, Piccinni MP, Sampognaro S, Maggi E, Romagnani S, Trinchieri G (1994) Interleukin 12 induces stable priming for interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production during differentiation of human T helper (Th) cells and transient IFN-gamma production in established Th2 cell clones. J Exp Med 179: 1273–1284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 62.
    Manetti R, Parronchi P, Giudizi MG, Piccinni MP, Maggi E, Trinchieri G, Romagnani S (1993) Natural killer cell stimulatory factor (interleukin 12 [IL-12]) induces T helper type 1 (Thl)-specific immune responses and inhibits the development of IL-4-producing Th cells. J Exp Med 177: 1199–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 63.
    Massague J (1987) The TGF-beta family of growth and differentiation factors. Cell 49: 437–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 64.
    Matsue H, Cruz PD Jr, Bergstresser PR, Takashima A (1992) Langerhans cells are the major source of mRNA for IL-1 beta and MIP-1 alpha among unstimulated mouse epidermal cells. J Invest Dermatol 99: 537–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 65.
    Matsushima K, Oppenheim JJ (1989) Interleukin 8 and MCAF: novel inflammatory cytokines inducible by IL 1 and TNF. Cytokine 1: 2–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 66.
    McKenzie RC, Lea RG, Sauder DN (1991) Ultraviolet radition induces expression of interleukin 8 and transforming growth factor beta in human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol 96: 610Google Scholar
  71. 67.
    Mihara M, Ikuta M, Koishihara Y, Ohsugi Y (1991) Interleukin 6 inhibits delayed-type hypersensitivity and the development of adjuvant arthritis. Eur J Immunol 21: 2327–2331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 68.
    Minty A, Chalon P, Derocq JM, Dumont X, Guillemot JC, Kaghad M, Labit C, Leplatois P, Liauzun P, Miloux B, Minty C, Casellas P, Loison G, Lupker J, Shire D, Ferrara P, Caput D (1993) Interleukin-13 is a new human lymphokine regulating inflammatory and immune responses. Nature 362: 248–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 69.
    Montaner LJ, Doyle AG, Collin M, Herbein G, Illei P, James W, Minty A, Caput D, Ferrara P, Gordon S (1993) Interleukin 13 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 production in primary blood-derived human macrophages in vitro. J Exp Med 178: 743–747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 70.
    Moore KW, O’Garra A, de Waal Malefyt R, Vieira P, Mosmann TR (1993) Interleukin-10. Annu Rev Immunol 11: 165–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 71.
    Moore KW, Vieira P, Fiorentino DF, Trounstine ML, Khan TA, Mosmann TR (1990) Homology of cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (IL-10) to the Epstein-Barr virus gene BCRFI. Science 248: 1230–1234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 72.
    Mosmann TR, Moore KW (1991) The role of IL-10 in crossregulation of TH1 and TH2 responses. Immunol Today 12: A49–A53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 73.
    Mullarkey MF, Leiferman KM, Peters MS, Caro I, Roux ER, Hanna RK, Rubin AS, Jacobs CA (1994) Human cutaneous allergic late-phase response is inhibited by soluble IL-1 receptor. J Immunol 152: 2033–2041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 74.
    Neben S, Turner K (1993) The biology of interleukin 11. Stem Cells Dayt 11 [Suppl 2]: 156–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 75.
    Niederkorn JY (1990) Immune priviledge and immune regulation in the eye. Adv Immunol 48: 191–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 76.
    Nishimoto N, Ogata A, Shima Y, Tani Y, Ogawa H, Nakagawa M, Sugiyama H, Yoshizaki K, Kishimoto T (1994) Oncostatin M, leukemia inhibitory factor, and interleukin 6 induce the proliferation of human plasmacytoma cells via the common signal transducer, GP130. J Exp Med 179: 1343–1348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 77.
    Palmetshofer A, Schwarz A, Mahnke K, Bhardwaj RS, Luger TA, Schwarz T (1994) Interleukin-10 affects the expression of adhesion molecules on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Exp Derm 3: 138Google Scholar
  82. 78.
    Paul SR, Schendel P (1992) The cloning and biological characterization of recombinant human interleukin 11. Int J Cell Cloning 10: 134–142Google Scholar
  83. 79.
    Paul WE (1991) Interleukin 4: a prototypic immunoregulatory lymphokine. Blood 77: 1859–1870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 80.
    Piguet PF, Grau GE, Hauser C, Vassalli P (1991) Tumor necrosis factor is a critical mediator in hapten induced irritant and contact hypersensitivity reactions. J Exp Med 173: 673–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 81.
    Punnonen J, Aversa G, Cocks BG, McKenzie AN, Menon S, Zurawski G, de Waal Malefyt R, de Vries JE (1993) Interleukin 13 induces interleukin 4-independent IgG4 and IgE synthesis and CD23 expression by human B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 3730–3734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 82.
    Renauld JC, Houssiau F, Louahed J, Vink A, Van Snick J, Uyttenhove C (1993) Interleukin-9. Adv Immunol 54: 79–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 83.
    Rheins LA, Cotleur AL, Kleier RS, Hoppenjans WB, Sauder DN, Nordlund JJ (1989) Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone modulates contact hypersensitivity responsiveness in C57/BL6 mice. J Invest Dermatol 93: 511–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 84.
    Rivas JM, Ullrich SE (1992) Keratinocyte-derived IL-10. J Invest Dermatol 98: 578Google Scholar
  89. 85.
    Rivas JM, Ullrich SE (1992) Systemic suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by supernatants from UV-irradiated keratinocytes. An essential role for keratinocyte-derived IL-10. J Immunol 149: 3865–3871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 86.
    Roberts AB, Sporn MB (1990) The transforming growth factor-betas. In: Sporn MB, Roberts AB (eds) Handbook of experimental pharmacology. I. Peptide growth factors and their receptors. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 419–472Google Scholar
  91. 87.
    Robertson B, Dostal K, Daynes RA (1988) Neuropeptide regulation of inflammatory and immunologic responses. The capacity of alpha-melanocytestimulating hormone to inhibit tumor necrosis factor and IL-1-inducible biologic responses. J Immunol 140: 4300–4307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 88.
    Rode HJ, Janssen W, Rosen Wolff A, Bugert JJ, Thein P, Becker Y, Darai G (1993) The genome of equine herpesvirus type 2 harbors an interleukin 10 (IL10)-like gene. Virus Genes 7: 111–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 89.
    Romani N, Heufler C, Koch F, Topar G, Kämpgen E, Schuler G (1993) Cytokines and Langerhans cells. In: Luger TA, Schwarz T (eds) Epidermal growth factors and cytokines. Dekker, New York, pp 345–364Google Scholar
  94. 90.
    Ruscetti FW (1990) Interleukin-2 In: Oppenheim JJ, Shevach EM (eds) Immunophysiology; the role of cells and cytokines in immunity and inflammation. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 46–66Google Scholar
  95. 91.
    Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A (1994) Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. J Exp Med 179: 1109–1118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 92.
    Scarborough DE (1990) Cytokine modulation of pituitary hormone secretion. In: O’Dorisio MS, Panerai A (eds) Neuropeptides and immunopeptides: messengers in a neuroimmune axis. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, New York, pp 169–187Google Scholar
  97. 93.
    Schauer E, Trautinger F, Köck A, Bhardwaj RS, Simon M, Schwarz A, Ansel JC, Schwarz T, Luger TA (1994) Proopiomelanocortin derived peptides are synthesized and released by human keratinocytes. J Clin Invest 93: 2258–2262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 94.
    Schrader JW (1993) Colony stimulating factors and the skin. In: Luger TA, Schwarz T (eds) Epidermal growth factors and cytokines. Dekker, New York, pp 147–162Google Scholar
  99. 95.
    Schreiber S, Kilgus O, Payer E, Kutil R, Elbe A, Mueller Ch, Sting’ G (1992) Cytokine pattern of Langerhans cells isolated from murine epidermal cell cultures. J Immunol 149: 3525–3534Google Scholar
  100. 96.
    Schröder JM, Sticherling M, Smid P, Christophers E (1993) Interleukin 8 and structurally related cytokines. In: Luger TA, Schwarz T (eds) Epidermal growth factors and cytokines. Dekker, New York, pp 89–112Google Scholar
  101. 97.
    Schwarz A, Grabbe S, Riemann H, Aragane Y, Simon M, Manon S, Andrade S, Luger TA (1994) In vivo effects of IL-10 on contact hypersensitivity and delayed type hypersensitivity reactions. J Invest Dermatol 103: 211–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 98.
    Schwarz A, Krone C, Trautinger F, Aragane Y, Neuner P, Luger TA, Schwarz T (1993) Pentoxifylline suppresses irritant and contact hypersensitivity reactions. J Invest Dermatol 101: 549–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 99.
    Schwarz T, Luger TA (1992) Pharmacology of cytokines in the skin. In: Muhktar H (ed) Pharmacology of the skin. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 283–314Google Scholar
  104. 100.
    Schwarz T, Schwarz A, Krone C, Luger TA (1993) Pentoxifylline suppresses allergic patch test reactions in humans. Arch Dermatol 129: 513–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 101.
    Schwarz T, Urbanski A, Gschnait F, Luger TA (1986) Inhibition of the induction of contact hypersensitivity by a UV-mediated epidermal cytokine. J Invest Dermatol 87: 289–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 102.
    Sehgal PB (1990) Interleukin-6: molecular pathophysiology. J Invest Dermatol 94: 2S–6SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 103.
    Smith CA, Farrah T, Goodwin RG (1994) The TNF receptor superfamily’ of cellular and viral proteins: activation, costimulation, and death. Cell 76: 959–962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 104.
    Streilein JW (1993) Immunobiology of the skin. In: Luger TA, Schwarz T (eds) Epidermal growth factors and cytokines. Dekker, New York, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  109. 105.
    Streilein JW, Taylor JR, Vincek V, Kurimoto I, Shimizu T, Tie C, Golomb C (1994) Immune surveillance and sunlight induced skin cancer. Immunol Today 15: 174–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 106.
    Taga T, Murakami M, Narazaki M, Hibi M, Saito M, Yoshida K, Yawata H, Yasukawa K, Kishimoto T (1992) The mechanism of IL-6 signaling through the IL-6 receptor associated signal transducer, gp130. In: Revel M (ed) IL-6: physiopathology and clinical potentials. Raven, New York, pp 43–53 (Serono Symposia, vol 88)Google Scholar
  111. 107.
    Taniguchi T (1992) Structure and function of IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. Behring Inst Mitt 91: 87–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 108.
    Tavernier J, Devos R, Cornelis S, Tuypens T, Van der Heyden J, Fiers W, Plaetinck G (1991) A human high affinity interleukin-5 receptor (IL5R) is composed of an IL5-specific alpha chain and a beta chain shared with the receptor for GM-CSF. Cell 66: 1175–1184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 109.
    Trefzer U, Brockhaus M, Lötscher H, Parlow F, Budnik A, Grewe M, Christoph I-I, Schöpf E, Luger TA, Krutmann J (1993) The 55-kd tumor necrosis factor receptor on human keratinocytes is regulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha and by ultraviolet B radiation. J Clin Invest 92: 462–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 110.
    Trinchieri G (1993) Interleukin-12 and its role in the generation of Thl cells. Immunol Today 14: 335–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 111.
    Vora M, Karasek MA (1994) IL-10 induces and upregulates the expression of E-selectin by inflammatory cytokines or LPS on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells. J Invest Dermatol 102: 636Google Scholar
  116. 112.
    Wahl SM (1993) Regulation of tissue inflammation, repair, and fibrosis by transforming growth factor beta. In: Luger TA, Schwarz T (eds) Epidermal growth factors and cytokines. Dekker, New York, pp 241–252Google Scholar
  117. 113.
    Wahl SM, McCartney Francis N, Mergenhagen SE (1989) Inflammatory and immunomodulatory roles of TGF-beta. Immunol Today 10: 258–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 114.
    Waldmann TA (1993) The IL-2/IL-2 receptor system: a target for rational immune intervention. Immunol Today 14: 264–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 115.
    Wolf SF, Temple PA, Kobayashi M, Young D, Dicig M, Lowe L, Dzialo R, Fitz L, Ferenz C, Hewick RM, Kelleher K, Herrmann SH, Clark SC, Azzoni L, Chan SH, Trinchieri G, Perusia B (1991) Cloning of cDNA for natural killer cell stimulatory factor, a heterodimeric cytokine with multiple biologic effects on T and natural killer cells. J Immunol 146: 3074–3081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 116.
    Yoshizaki K, Kishimoto T (1993) Interleukin 6. In: Luger TA, Schwarz T (eds) Epidermal growth factors and cytokines. Dekker, New York, pp 4962Google Scholar
  121. 117.
    Zhang XG, Gu JJ, Lu ZY, Yasukawa K, Yancopoulos GD, Turner K, Shoyab M, Taga T, Kishimoto T, Bataille R, Klein B (1994) Ciliary neurotropic factor, interleukin 11, leukemia inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M are growth factors for human myeloma cell lines using the interleukin 6 transducer GP130. J Exp Med 179: 1337–1342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 118.
    Zurawski G, de Vries JE (1994) Interleukin 13, an interleukin 4-like cytokine that acts on monocytes and B cells, but not on T cells. Immunol Today 15: 19–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. A. Luger
  • T. Schwarz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations