Regulation of Apoptosis via Steroid Receptors
Steroid hormones play essential roles in a variety of physiological processes including embryonic development, sexual differentiation and maturation, and metamorphosis. The homeostatic regulation of metabolism and cell turnover that determines tissue sizes and shapes are also under the influence of these hormones. Apoptosis is involved in many of these phenomena, The pharmacological or surgical manipulation of animals to change steroid levels often causes involution or enlargement of certain tissues partly through the enhancement or inhibition of apoptosis. For example, an elevation of blood glucocorticoid level, by an injection of glucocorticoids or by excessive stress, causes thymus involution due to apoptosis in cortical immature thymocytes (Claman 1972). By contrast, adrenalectomy of mice causes not only depletion of glucocorticoids from the plasma but also a marked increase in the thymus size (Shortman and Jackson 1974). Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis is dependent on the binding of glucocorticoids to glucocorticoid hormone receptors (GRs), which is also required in the general effects of steroids (Duval et al. 1984). The steroid receptors such as GR, mineralcorticoid receptors, progesterone receptors, androgen receptors, and estrogen receptors are members of a superfamily of ligand-inducible transcription factors. The steroid receptor superfamily also includes retinoic acid receptors, thyroid hormone receptors, vitamin D3 receptors, ecdysone receptors, and COUP transcription factor. They are related to v-erbA oncogene.
KeywordsEstrogen Hydrocortisone Dexamethasone Progesterone Estradiol
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ferran C, Sheeha K, Dy M, Schreiber R, Merite S, Landais P, Noel LH, Grau G, Bluestone J, Bach JF, Chatenoud L (1990) Cytokine-related syndrome following injection of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody further evidence for transient in vivo T cell activation. Eur J Immunol 20: 509–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Iwata M, Iseki R. Kudo Y (1993) Regulation of thymocyte apoptosis: glucocorticoid-induced death and its inhibition by T-cell receptor/CD3 complex-mediated stimulation. In: Lavin ML, Waiters D (ed) Programmed cell death: the cellular and molecular biology of apoptosis. Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, Switzerland, pp 31–44Google Scholar
- Pla M, Zakany J, Fachet J (1976) H-2 influence on corticosteroid effects on thymus cells. Folia Biol (Praha) 22: 49–50Google Scholar
- Pratt WB, Sanchez ER, Bresnick EH, Meshinchi S, Scherrer LC, Dalman FC, Welsh MJ (1989) Interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor with Mr 90,000 heat shock protein: An evolving model of ligand-mediated receptor transformation and translocation. Cancer Res [Suppl] 49: 2222s–2229sPubMedGoogle Scholar