Imaging of frontoethmoidal encephalomeningoceles
An exceptionally high incidence of frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele is found in Southeast Asia. Diagnosis, with details of the bones and intracranial abnormalities, must be studied for treatment. Bone defects in 120 patients were assessed on plain radiograms. CT in 110 patients was found to be useful for confirming the diagnosis, classifying the lesions and demonstrating more details of facial abnormalities. The content of the sac and intracranial abnormalities can be assessed by CT, but MRI is more useful in demonstrating the details in multiple planes. MRI and MRA are non-invasive studies of the blood vessels at the base of the brain. These also help in the planning and selection of an operative approach.
key wordsFrontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele Computed tomography Magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic resonance angiography
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 4.Suwanwela C (1976) Craniomeningocele and encephalomeningocele. In: Sano K et al (eds) Recent progress in neurological surgery. Elsevier, New York, pp 49–55.Google Scholar
- 5.Suwanwela C, Suwanwela N (1979) Congenital malformations of the nervous system as a regional problem. In: Isler H (ed) Neurological sciences in developing countries. University of Malaya Press, Malaya, pp 444–445.Google Scholar
- 7.Suwanwela C, Poshyachinda V, Poshyachinda M (1973) Isotope cisternography and ventriculography in frontoethmoidal encephalomeningocele. Acta Radiol 14:5–8.Google Scholar
- 10.Naidich TP, Zimmerman RA (1987) Common congenital malformations of the brain. In: Brant — Zawadzki M, Norman D (eds) Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system. Raven Press, New York, pp 131–150.Google Scholar
- 11.Bayer RS (1988) Editorial. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 9:183–185.Google Scholar
- 13.Naidich TP, Osborn RE, Bauer BS, McLone DG, Kernahan DA, Zaparackas ZG (1991) Embryology and congenital lesions of the midface. In: Som PM, Bergeron RT (eds) Head and neck imaging. Mosby Year Book, St. Louis, pp 1–50.Google Scholar
- 15.Poshyachinda M, Boonvisut S (1989) Cerebral blood flow imaging with 99 Tc[sum HMPAO. In: Dynamic functional studies in nuclear medicine in developing countries. IAEA, Vienna, pp 281-288.Google Scholar