Vulvar Carcinoma

  • J. L. Benedet
  • D. M. Miller
  • E. Kovacs
  • H. Ludwig
Part of the UICC International Union Against Cancer / Union Internationale Contre le Cancer book series (UICCI)


Vulvar cancer is an uncommon malignancy accounting for approximately 4%–5% of all female genital tract cancers. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly, although reports of young, reproductive age group women with this disease appear in the literature. The external location of the vulva should prompt early presentation, but traditionally significant delays in diagnosis have been associated with this cancer.


Vulvar Cancer Verrucous Carcinoma Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma Vulvar Carcinoma Gynecologic Oncology Group Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Andreasson JA, Nyboe J (1985) Value of prognostic parameters in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 22: 341–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berman ML, Super JT, Creasman WT et al (1989) Conservative surgical management of superficially invasive stage I vulvar carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 35: 352–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Binder SW, Huang I, Fu YS (1990) Risk factors for the development of lymph-node metastases in vulvar squamous-cell carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 37: 9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boronow RC, Hickman BT, Reagan MT et al (1987) Combined therapy as an alternative to exenteration for locally advanced vulvovaginal cancer. II. Results, complications, and dosimet¬ric and surgical considerations. Am J Clin Oncol 10: 171–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dolan JR, McCall AR, Gooneratne S et al (1993) DNA ploidy, proliferation index, grade, and stage as prognostic factors for vulvar squamous cell carcinomas. Gynecol Oncol 48: 232–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fairey RN, MacKay P, Benedet JL et al (1985) Radiation treatment of carcinoma of the vulva, 1950-1980. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151: 591–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    FIGO (1990) Changes in gynecologic cancer staging by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162: 610–611Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fioretti P, Gadducci A, Prato B et al (1992) The influence of some prognostic factors on the clinical outcome of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 13: 97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Frankmann O, Kabulski Z, Nilsson B et al (1991) Prognostic factors in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 36: 219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Grimshaw RN, Murdoch JB, Monaghan JM (1993) Radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal- femoral lymphadenectomy through separate incisions - experience with 100 cases. Int J Gynecol Cancer 3: 18–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hacker NF, Berek JS, Juillard GJF et al (1984) Preoperative radiation therapy for locally advanced vulvar cancer. Cancer 54: 2056–2061PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hermanek P, Sobin LH (eds) (1992) UICC International Union Against Cancer: TNM classification of malignant tumors, 4th edn, 2nd rev. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hoffman MS, Roberts WS, Lapolla JP et al (1989) Recent modifications in the treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol Surv 44: 227–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Homesley HD, Bundy BN, Sedlis A et al (1986) Radiation therapy versus pelvic node resection for carcinoma of the vulva with positive groin nodes. Obstet Gynecol 68: 733–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Homesley HD, Bundy BN, Sedlis A et al (1991) Assessment of current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging of vulvar carcinoma relative to prognostic factors for survival (a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study). Am J Obstet Gynecol 164: 997–1004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Homesley HD, Bundy BN, Sedlis A et al (1993) Prognostic factors for groin node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva (a Gynecologic Oncology Group study). Gynecol Oncol 49: 279–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hopkins MP, Reid GC, Vettrano I et al (1991) Squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: prognostic factors influencing survival. Gynecol Oncol 43: 113–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Husseinzadeh N, Wesseler T, Schneider D et al (1990) Prognostic factors and the significance of cytologic grading in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: a clinicopathologic study. Gynecol Oncol 36: 192–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Iversen T, Abeler V, Aalders J (1981) Individualized treatment of stage I carcinoma of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 57: 85–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kurzl R, Messerer D (1989) Prognostic factors in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: a multivariate analysis. Gynecol Oncol 32: 143–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Magrina JF, Webb MJ, Gaffey TA et al (1979) Stage I squamous cell cancer of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 453–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Malmstrom H, Janson H, Simonsen E et al (1990) Prognostic factors in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva treated with surgery and irradiation. Acta Oncol 29: 915–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Onnis A, Marchetti M, Maggino T (1992) Carcinoma of the vulva: critical analysis of survival and treatment of recurrences. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 13: 480–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Origoni M, Sideri M, Garsia S et al (1992) Prognostic value of pathological patterns of lymph node positivity in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva stage III and IVA FIGO. Gynecol Oncol 45: 313–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Podratz KC, Symmonds RE, Taylor WF et al (1983) Carcinoma of the vulva: analysis of treatment and survival. Obstet Gynecol 61: 63–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rose PG, Nelson BE, Fourner L et al (1992) Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels in invasive squamous vulvar cancer. J Surg Oncol 50: 183–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rutledge FN, Mitchell MF, Munsell MF et al (1991) Prognostic indicators for invasive carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 42: 239–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sedlis A, Homesley H, Bundy BN et al (1987) Positive groin lymph nodes in superficial squamous cell vulvar cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156: 1159–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shanbour KA, Manne RS, Morris PC et al (1992) Comparison of clinical versus surgical staging systems in vulvar cancer. Obstet Gynecol 80: 927–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Siracky J, Kysela B, Siracka E (1989) Flow cytometric analysis of primary cervical and vulvar carcinomas and their metastases. Neoplasma 36: 437–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van Der Sijde R, De Bruijn HWA, Krans M et al (1989) Significance of serum SCC antigen as a tumor marker in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 35: 227–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Union Against Cancer, Geneva 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Benedet
  • D. M. Miller
  • E. Kovacs
  • H. Ludwig

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations