The total artificial heart is at the present time no longer an object of discussion. Basic research on it is nevertheless still very important for developing a new understanding of the overall regulation of circulation. These devices are designed for biological testing as well as for developing implantable driving devices. Based on my own personal experience with total artificial hearts, we must keep in mind that it is much easier to drive an artificial heart as an assist device. The total artificial heart will become an object of discussion again when assist devices show reliability in long-term use. At present, research on special driving systems is under way. Rosenberg reports on the experience using a total implantable mechanical heart at Penn State, and Kaufmann reports on a motor-gear unit whose components can be also used for assisted circulation.