Dynamical phenomena in living systems occur on an extremely broad range of length and time scales.
The fastest molecular modes, such as small conformational changes in a macromolecule, that may eventually influence a process in a living system typically occur in the range of 10-12 — 10-9 sec whereas some evolutionary processes take place on geological time scales as long as 1012 —1016 sec. Within this enormous span of time, life processes of all sorts outplay themselves; a protein may fold into an active state in less than a second, processes and flow regulation in the nephrons of the kidney take place with time delays of several seconds, and the bones in a mammalian subject undergo remodelling over periods of years.
KeywordsLiving System Mutual Coupling Life Process Geological Time Scale Present Volume
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