Sex Hormones and Breast Cancer: The Issue of Hormone Replacement

  • K. I. Pritchard
  • J.-A. Roy
  • C. A. Sawka
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 140)


The relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer remains controversial. This controversy has been fueled by strong opinions and emotions. There is a large amount of observational data (case control and cohort studies on the relationship between HRT and the development of breast cancer, but virtually no good observational or interventional data (randomized controlled trials) on the effects of HRT in women who have already had a diagnosis of breast cancer.


Breast Cancer Postmenopausal Woman Endometrial Cancer Hormone Replacement Therapy Menopausal Symptom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Cauley JA, Seeley DG, Ensrud K et al. (1995) Estrogen replacement therapy and fractures in older women. Ann Intern Med 122: 9–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Clark RM, Chua T (1989) Breast cancer and pregnancy: the ultimate challenge. Clin Oncol 1: 11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cobleigh MA, Berris RF, Bush T et al. (1994) Estrogen replacement therapy in breast cancer survivors. A time for change. JAMA 272: 540–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Colditz GA, Egan KM, Stampfer MJ (1993) Hormone replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer: results from epidemiologic studies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 168: 1473–1480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Coope J (1976) Double-blind cross-over study of estrogen replacement therapy. In: Campbell S (ed) Management of the menopause and the post-menopausal years. MTP, Lancaster, p 167Google Scholar
  6. Daly E, Gray A, Barlow D, McPherson K et al. (1993) Measuring the impact of menopausal symptoms in quality of life. Br Med J 307: 836–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Cecco L, Venturini PL, Alibrandi MP et al. (1985) Effet du véralipride sur les taux de LH, FSH et PRL et sur le syndrome climatérique. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 80: 152–155Google Scholar
  8. Dhodapker MV, Ingle JN, Ahman DL (1995) Estrogen replacement therapy withdrawal and regression of metastatic breast cancer Cancer (in press).Google Scholar
  9. DiSaia PJ (1993) Hormone-replacement therapy in patients with breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 23: 1909–1913Google Scholar
  10. Eden JA (1991) Progestens: an occasional review. Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaccol 17: 289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Falkeborn M, Persson I, Adami HO et al. (1992) The risk of acute myocardial infarction after estrogen and estrogen-progestogen replacement. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99: 821–828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goodwin PJ (1989) Decision analysis (DA) of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in women made prematurely menopausal during adjuvant chemotherapy (ADJ/ CXT) for breast cancer (BC). Breast Cancer Res Treat 14: 147Google Scholar
  13. Grady D, Rubin SM, Petitti DB et al. (1992) Estrogen and progestin for postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 117: 1016–37Google Scholar
  14. Limouzin-Lamother MA, Mairon N, Joyce CIB et al. (1994) Quality of life after the menopause: influence of hormonal replacement therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 170: 618–624Google Scholar
  15. Steinberg KK, Thacker SB, Smith SJ et al. (1991) A meta-analysis of the effect of estrogen replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer. JAMA 265: 1985–1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lufkin EG, Wahner HW, O’Fallon WM et al. (1992) Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with transdermal estrogen. Ann Intern Med 117: 1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Nabulsi MB, Folsom AR, White A et al. (1993) Association of hormone-replacement therapy and fractures in older women. Ann Intern Med 122: 9–16Google Scholar
  18. PEPI (1995) Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) trial. JAMA 273: 199–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Powles TJ, Hickish T, Casey S et al. (1993) Hormone replacement after breast cancer. Lancet 342: 60–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Psaty BM, Heckbert SR, Atkins D et al. (1994) The risk of myocardial infarction associated with the combined use of estrogens and progestins in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 154: 1333–1339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schiff I, Tulchinsky D, Cramer D et al. (1980) Oral medroxyprogesterone in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms. JAMA 224: 1443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sillero-Arenas M, Delgado-Rodriguez M, Rodrigues-Canteras R et al. (1992) Menopausal hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 79: 286–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Sitruk-Ware R (1990) Estrogen therapy during menopause. Practical treatment recommendations. Drugs 39: 203–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada (1994) Canadian Menopause Consensus Conference. J Soc Obstet Gynecol Can 16: 4–40Google Scholar
  25. Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA (1991) Estrogen replacement therapy and coronary heart disease: a quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic evidence. Prey Med 20: 47–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Steinberg KK, Thacker SB, Smith SJ et al. (1991) A meta-analysis of the effect of estrogen replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer. JAMA 265: 1985–1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stoll BA (1989) Hormone replacement therapy in women treated for breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 23: 1909–1913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Zolinski C (1992) Estrogen replacement therapy in women with breast cancer: a survey of patients attitudes. Am J Med Sci 304: 145–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Weiss NS, Ure CL, Ballard JH et al. (1980) Decreased risk of fractures of the hip and lower forearm with postmenopausal use of estrogen. N Engl J Med 303: 1195–1198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wesel S, Bourguignon RP, Bosumua WB (1984) Veralipride versus conjugated estrogens: a double-blind study in the management of menopausal hot flushes. Curr Med Res Opin 8: 696–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wiklund I, Berg G, Hammar M et al. (1992) Long-term effect of transdermal hormonal therapy on aspects of quality of life in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 14: 225–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wile AG, Opfel RW, Margileth DA et al. (1991) Hormone replacement therapy does not affect breast cancer outcome. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 10: 58Google Scholar
  33. Wren BG, Brown LB (1986) A double-blind trial with clonidine and a placebo to treat the hot flushes. Med J Aust 144: 369–370PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. I. Pritchard
    • 1
  • J.-A. Roy
    • 1
  • C. A. Sawka
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical Oncology/Haematology, Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer CentreUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations