Pancreatic carcinoma is nearly always fatal, with a 5-year survival rate of 3%–5%. Although cigarette smoking is considered to be a risk factor, the etiology of this cancer is essentially unknown. The hypothesis that accumulative genetic alterations underlie the multistage process of tumorigenesis is becoming increasingly accepted. Mutations activate the malignant potential of oncogenes and inactivate the repressor function of tumor suppressor genes (reviewed in Bishop 1991). The paradigmatic examples of these genes are the ras oncogenes and the P53 tumor suppressor gene.
KeywordsCodon Adenocarcinoma Adenoma Pancreatitis Adduct
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