Endogenous Mechanisms Regulating TNF and IL-1 during Sepsis
In the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that proinflammatory cytokines play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Of these, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) seem to be of particular importance. Administration of either TNF-α or IL-1 to experimental animals results in a syndrome that mimics sepsis, and therapy specifically directed against either cytokine protects against lethality in experimental sepsis and endotoxe- mia. In recent years, several endogenous mechanisms meant to protect the host against excessive activity of these highly potent cytokines have been identified. In this chapter, we will briefly discuss current knowledge of the roles of TNF and IL-1 in the pathogenesis of sepsis, and will provide an overview of endogenous mechanisms, that regulate the production and activities of TNF and IL-1.
KeywordsToxicity Corticosteroid Hydrocortisone Interferon Noradrenaline
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