Alternative Carbohydrate Reserves Used in the Daily Cycle of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism

  • C. C. Black
  • J.-Q. Chen
  • R. L. Doong
  • M. N. Angelov
  • S. J. S. Sung
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 114)

Abstract

Each day a massive interlocked biochemical cycle occurs in the green tissues of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. The function of this interlocked cycle, in its simplest context, is to furnish most of the CO2 for CAM plant photosynthesis. In addition, this diel (24 h) cycle produces the primary identifying marks of a CAM tissue through two ancillary cycles. One cycle involves a nocturnal acidification and its loss the next day, while the second concerns the depletion of a carbohydrate reserve at night and its replenishment the next day. Formally Benjamin Heyne (1815) is credited with writing, nearly two centuries ago, about the “acid as sorrel” taste of a succulent green plant at dawn and the “bland taste” caused by acidity loss later in the day. In fact, the exact origins of these observations are lost in antiquity, but certainly are referred to in Roman and Biblical writings. The circumstantial cause of the acidity was postulated to be an organic acid about a century ago and the bland taste later was associated with starch; but these ideas were not plainly coupled together in theory nor quantitatively studied until the late 1940s. Then, with the discovery of major portions of intermediary metabolism and the advent of additional quantitative biochemical procedures, the nature of the daily reciprocal relation between the acid and the bland taste was recognized and measured quantitatively. The acid taste is caused principally by malic acid, while the bland taste is caused by deacidification plus the reciprocal synthesis of a bland tasting carbohydrate, e.g. a polysaccharide such as starch.

Keywords

Sucrose Carbohydrate Polysaccharide Acidity Pyruvate 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. C. Black
    • 1
  • J.-Q. Chen
    • 1
  • R. L. Doong
    • 1
  • M. N. Angelov
    • 1
  • S. J. S. Sung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Life Sciences BuildingThe University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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