Advertisement

Epistemological Implications of Artificial Intelligence

  • Thomas A. Brody

Abstract

The term “artificial intelligence” covers a multitude of sins against last century’s common sense, all of which propose exploiting electronic computers for effects which in some sense correspond to human intelligence. The field’s coverage ranges from automatic language translation to automated mathematics, passing through chess playing, medical diagnosis, and satellite photograph analysis, for example. Initially little more than an academic diversion, artificial intelligence has recently found a series of important and considerably interesting applications. The construction and industrial exploitation of intelligent robots is not unlikely in the near future; the possibilities are good enough for companies little prone to pursuing chimeras, like General Motors in the United States or Hitachi in Japan, to invest considerable sums in them.

Keywords

Perceptual Process Epistemic Model Epistemological Implication Chess Playing Epistemic Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bar-Hillel, Y. (1964): Language and Information ( Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. )MATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Barron, D.W. (1968): Recursive Techniques in Programming ( Macdonald, London )Google Scholar
  3. Berkeley, G. (1710): Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge Part I (Everyman, London ), p. 1910Google Scholar
  4. Brody, T.A. (1968): Symbol Manipulation Techniques ( Gordon & Breach, New York )Google Scholar
  5. Carnap, R. (1932): Die Physikalische Sprache als Universalsprache der Wissenschaft (Erkenntnis) p. 112Google Scholar
  6. Chomsky, N. (1957): Syntactic Structures ( Mouton, Hague )Google Scholar
  7. Clowes, M.B. (1971): Artificial Intelligence 2, 79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooper, D.C. (1966): in L. Fox (ed.) Advances in Programming and Non-numerical Computation ( Pergamon, Oxford ) p. 155Google Scholar
  9. Creutzfeldt, O.D., Heggelund, P. (1975): Science 188, 1025ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis, M. (1958): Computability and Unsolvability ( McGraw-Hill, New York )MATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Gelernter, H., Hansen, J-R., Loveland, D.W. (1960): Proc. Western Joint Computer Conf. 17, 143Google Scholar
  12. Gödel, K. (1931): Monatsc. f. Math. u. Phys. 38, 173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Greenblatt, R.D., Eastlake, D.E., Crocker, S.D, (1967): Proc. Fall Joint Computer Conf. ( Thomson Book Co., Washington D.C. ) p. 801Google Scholar
  14. Gregory, R.L. (1966): Eye and Brain ( Widenfeld h Nicolson, London )Google Scholar
  15. Guzmán, A. (1968): Proc. Fall Joint Comp. Conf. ( Thomson Book Co., Washington D.C. ) p. 291Google Scholar
  16. Harmon, L.D. (1971): Abh. 4. Kongress d. Deutschen Ges. f. Kybernetik (Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York) p. 277Google Scholar
  17. Hearn, A.J. (1966): Comm. Assoc. Computing Mach. 9, 573MATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Hubel, D.H., Wiesel T.N. (1959): J. Physiology 148, 574Google Scholar
  19. Hume, D. (1739): A Treatise of Human Nature (Penguin Harmondsworth), p. 1939Google Scholar
  20. Iturriaga, R., Standish, T.A., Krutar, R.A. (1966a): Proc. Spring Joint Computer Conf. (Spartan Books 28 ), p. 241Google Scholar
  21. Iturriaga, R., Standisch, T.A., Krutar, R.A., Early, J. (1966b): The Implementation of Formula Algol ( Carnegie Institute of Technology Memorandum, Pittsburgh, Ill. )Google Scholar
  22. Johannson, G. (1973): Perception and Psychophysics 14, 201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Julez, B. et al. (1973): Perception 2, 391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kneebone, G.T. (1963): Mathematical Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics ( Van Nostrarid, London )MATHGoogle Scholar
  25. Lighthill, M.J. (1973): Artificial Intelligence. A general Survey ( Science Research Council Report, London )Google Scholar
  26. Locke, J. (1690): Essay on Human Understanding Part IIGoogle Scholar
  27. Mesarović, M.D. (1965) in Sass, Wilkinson (eds.): Computer Augmentation of Human Reasoning ( Spartan Books, Washington D.C. ) p. 37Google Scholar
  28. Michie, D. (1971): Experimental Programming Report No. 22 ( Department of Machine Intelligence and Perception, Univ. of Edinburgh )Google Scholar
  29. Michie, D. (1974): On Machine Intelligence ( Edinburgh Univ. Press ) p. 123Google Scholar
  30. Michie, D., Ambler, A.P., Barrow, H.G., Burstall, R.M., Popplestone, R.J., Turner, K.J. (1973): Proc. Conf. in Industrial Robot Technology (Univ. of Nottingham), p. 185Google Scholar
  31. Minsky, M. (1971): private communicationGoogle Scholar
  32. Minsky, M., Papert, S. (1972): Artificial Intelligence: Progress Report(MIT Artificial Intelligence Memo 251 ( MIT, Cambridge, Mass. )Google Scholar
  33. Moses, J. (1967): Ph. D. Thesis ( MIT, Cambridge, Mass. )Google Scholar
  34. Newell, A., Shaw, J.C., Simon, H.A. (1960a): Proc. Int. Conf. Info. Processing ( UNESCO, Paris ) p. 256Google Scholar
  35. Newell, A., Shaw, J.C., Simon, H.A. (1960b): in Yovits, Cameron (eds.) Selforganizing Systems ( Pergamon, Oxford ), p. 153Google Scholar
  36. Pierce, C.S. (1903): “The Reality of Thirdness and Some Consequences of Four Incapacities” in Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Pierce Vol. V ( Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass. ) p. 63Google Scholar
  37. Raphael, B. (1964): Report TR-2, Project MAC, ( MIT, Cambridge, Mass. )Google Scholar
  38. Samuel, A.L. (1959): IBM J. Res. Div. 3, 210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Samuel, A.L. (1967): IBM J. Res. Div. 11, 601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Slagle, J. (1967): Ph. D. Thesis ( MIT, Cambridge, Mass. )Google Scholar
  41. Taube, M. (1961): Computers and Common Sense (Columbia Univ. Press, New York )Google Scholar
  42. Turing, A.M. (1950): Mind 59,433 (reprinted in Feigenbaum, Feldman (eds.) (1963) Computers and Thought ( McGraw-Hill, New York ) p. 11Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas A. Brody

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations