The impossibility proof given by von Neumann for hidden variables to complete quantum mechanics is a direct consequence of the density-matrix formalism; since this stands or falls with quantum theory itself, “deterministic” or dispersionless hidden variables, but only these, must be ruled out. This is shown to be valid for all statistical theories in physics. That there exist theories with acceptable hidden variable structures then shows that dispersive hidden variables cannot be ruled out either classically or quantum-mechanically.
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- Broglie, L. de (1953): La physique quantique rest er a-t-ell e indeterministe? (Gauthier-Villars, Paris)Google Scholar