Fire and Diversity in Canadian Ecosystems

  • Luc C. Duchesne
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 20)

Abstract

In Canada, before settlement by Europeans, fire was a dominant feature of most landscapes, with a recurrent passage every 50 to 350 years. Short fire frequencies are typical of the boreal and Great-Lakes St-Lawrence forest regions, whereas long frequencies are found in the coastal forests of British Columbia. A particular forest site may have been visited by fire between 30 to 120 times since forest colonization 7,000 years ago. Before that fire interacted with our current vegetation since at least the Miocene or early Pliocene (30 million and 12 million years ago, respectively) (Hopkins 1967). Clearly, Canadian forest ecosystems have evolved under the selective pressure of fire, leading to fire-adapted ecosystems. The nature of these adaptations varies greatly according to each fire regime typical of biogeographic zones and local conditions.

Keywords

Biomass Burning Miocene Boral Populus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlgren IF, Ahlgren CE (1965) Effects of prescribed burning on soil microorganisms in a Minnesota jack pine forest. Ecology 46: 304–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlgren IF, Ahlgren CE (1960) Ecological effects of forest fires. Bot. Rev. 26: 483–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alverson WS, Walter DM, Solheim SL (1988) Forests to deer: edge effects in Northern Wisconsin. Cons. Biol. 2: 348–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Archibald D (1993) The use of FEC as a tool in prescribed burning. Prescribed burning workshop. 22–23 September, 1993. Petawawa National forestry Institute, Chalk River, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  5. Banfield AWF (1974) The mammals of Canada. University of Toronto PressGoogle Scholar
  6. Bargeron Y (1991) The influence of island and mainland lake shore landscapes on boreal forest fire regimes. Ecology 72: 1980–1992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brundrett M, Abbott L, Jasper D, Ashwath N (1993) The diversity of VAM fungi in undisturbed and disturbed habitats of the Kakadu region of Australia. Proceedings of the 9th NACOM. Guelph, Ontario, 8–12 August, 1993Google Scholar
  8. Burton PJ, Balisky AC, Coward LP, Cumming SG, Kneeshaw DD (1992) The value of managing for biodiversity. For. Chron. 68: 225–237Google Scholar
  9. Canham CD, Loucks OL (1984) Catastrophic windthrow of the pre-settlement forests of Wisconsin. Ecology 65: 803–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carleton TJ, Gordon AM (1992) Understanding old-growth red and white pine dominated forests in Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  11. Cayford JH, McRae DJ (983) The role of fire in jack pine forest. in Wein, RS, DA McLean (eds). The role of fire in northern circumpolar ecosystems. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Day KR, Carthy J (1990) Changes in carabid beetle communities accompanying a rotation of sitka spruce. Agric. Ecosys. and Environ. 24: 407–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Day, RJ, Carter JV (1990) Stand structure and successional development of the white pine and red pine communities in the Temagami forest. Ministry of Natural ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  14. Douds DD, Galvers L, Janke RR, Wagoner MA (1993) The effect of tillage regimes and farming system upon VAM fungi. Proceedings of the 9th NACOM. Guelph, Ontario 8–12 August, 1993Google Scholar
  15. Duchesne LC (1993a) Defining Canada’s Old-growth Forests - Problems and solutions. For. Chron (submitted)Google Scholar
  16. Duchesne LC (1993b) Ectomycorrhizal fungi and the control of root diseases. Mycorrhizal News 5: 1–5Google Scholar
  17. Duchesne LC, Gauthier S (1993) The theoretical age-class distribution of white and red pine forests in the Great-lakes St-Lawrence Forest region. For. Chron (submitted)Google Scholar
  18. Duchesne LC, McAlpine RS (1993) Carabid beetles as indicators of biodiversity following prescribed fire, clear-cutting and scarification. Canadian Forest Service. Petawawa National Forestry Institute Information report (In press)Google Scholar
  19. Dunning JB, Danielson BJ, Pulliam HR (1992) Ecological processes that affect populations in complex landscapes. Oikos 65: 69–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Durall D, Jones MD, Simard S (1993) Mycorrhizal diversity in mixed and monoculture plantations of Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga mensiesii. Proceedings of the 9th NACOM. Guelph, Ontario 8–12 August, 1993Google Scholar
  21. Edwards CA, Sunderland CD, George KS (1979) Studies of polyphagous predators of cereal aphids, J. Appl. Ecol. 16: 811–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elias SA (1991) Insects and climate change. BioScience 41: 552–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Environment Canada (1991) The state of Canada’s environment. Ministry of Supply and Services, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  24. Gauthier S (1991) Structure génétic et sérotinisme de populations de pin gris (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) soumises àdeux regimes de feux distincts. PhD dissertation. University of Montreal, QuebecGoogle Scholar
  25. Gill M (1981) Fire adaptive traits of vascular plants. in Proceedings of Fire regime and ecosystems properties conf. US Department of Agriculture general technical report WO-26Google Scholar
  26. Hansen AJ, Spies TA, Swanson FJ, Ohmann JL (1991) Conserving biodiversity in managed forests. Bioscience 41: 382–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Harley JL, Smith SE (1983) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Harmon ME, Barker GA, Spycher G, Greene SE (1990) Leaf-litter decomposition in the Picea/Tsuga forests of Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. for. Ecol. Management 31: 55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harris LD, Silva-Lopez G (1992) Forest fragmentation and the conservation of biological diversity. in Fiedler P, Jain S (eds). Conservation biology, the theory and practice of nature conservation, preservation, and management. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Heaman D (1993) The role of fire in Temagami’s forests. Comprehensive planning program. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Temagami areaGoogle Scholar
  31. Hendrix JM, Gue B, Zhi-Qiang AN (1993). Crop rotation disrupts mycorrhizal fungal communities. Proceedings of the 9th NACOM. Guelph, Ontario 8–12 August, 1993Google Scholar
  32. Herr DG, Duchesne LC, Tellier R, McAlpine RS, Peterson RL (1993) Effect of prescribed burning on the ectomycorrhizal infectivity of a forest soil. Proceedings of the 9th NACOM. Guelph, Ontario 8–12 August, 1993Google Scholar
  33. Hof JG, Joyce LA (1992) Spatial optimization of wildlife and timber in managed forest ecosystems. Forest Science 38: 489–508Google Scholar
  34. Holliday NJ (1991) Species response of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) during post-fire regeneration of boreal forest. Can. Ent. 123: 1369–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hopkins DM (ed) (1967) The Bering land bridge. Standford Univ. Press, Standford, CAGoogle Scholar
  36. Hosie RC (1980) Les arbres indigéns du Canada. Ministere des Approvisionnements et Services, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  37. Jeffries P (1987) Use of mycorrhizae in agriculture. CRC Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 5: 319–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jennings DT, Houseweart MW, Dunn GA (1986) Carqabid beetles ( Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with strip clearcut and dense spurce-fir forests of Maine. Coleopt. Bull. 40: 251–263Google Scholar
  39. Johnson EA (1992) Fire and vegetation dynamics• studies from the North American boreal forest. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Keeley JE (9181) Reproductive cycles and fire regimes. in Proceedings of Fire regime and ecosystems properties conf. US Department of Agriculture general technical report WO-26Google Scholar
  41. Kolbe W (1988) Okotoxikologische Aspekte-aufgezeigt as beispiel der coleopteren Fauna von Waldboden. Mitt. Dtsch. Ges. Allg. Angew. Ent. 6: 458–463Google Scholar
  42. Lamont BB, Le Maitre DC, Cowling RM, Enright NJ (1991) Canopy seed storage in woody plants. Bot. rev. 57: 277–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Langor DW, Niemelä J, Spence RJ (1991) Effects of forestry practices on carabid assemblages in lodgepole pine forests in western Alberta. Proc. Can. Ent. Soc. Meet. Montreal, Qué., 21–23 September, 1991Google Scholar
  44. Lenski RE (1982) The impact of forest cutting on the diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: carabidae) in the Southern Appalachians. Ecol. Entomol. 7: 385–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Le Tacon F, Garbaye J, Carr G (1987) The use of mycorrhizas in temperate and tropical forests. Symbiosis 3: 179–206Google Scholar
  46. Levesque C, Dube J, Pilon JG (1976) Inventaire et ètude biocènotique des coleoptères carabidae de biotopes forestiers des Laurentides. Can. Nat. 103: 5889–582Google Scholar
  47. Lindroth CH (1969) The ground beetles of Canada and Alaska. Part 6. Opusc Entomol. Suppl. 34Google Scholar
  48. Namkoong G (1991) Biodiversity-Issues in genetics, forestry and ethics. For. Chron. 68: 438–443Google Scholar
  49. Naylor B (1993) The impact of natural and prescribed fire on wildlife. in Prescribed burning workshop. 22–23 September, 1993. Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, OntarioGoogle Scholar
  50. Niemelä J (1990) Effect of changes in the habitat on carabid assemblages in a wooded meadow on the Aland Islands. Notulae Entomologicae 69: 169–174Google Scholar
  51. Niemelä J, Haila Y, Halme E, Lahti T, Pajunen T, Punttila P (1988) The distribution of carabid beetles in fragments of old coniferous taiga and adjacent managed forest. Ann. Zool. Fennici 25: 107–119Google Scholar
  52. O’Dell TE, Amimirati (1993) Ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungi in old-growth Pseudotsuga heterophylla forests of the Olympic Peninsula, W.A. Proceedings of the 9th NACOM. Guelph, Ontario 8–12 August, 1993Google Scholar
  53. Parry W, Rodger D (1986) The effect of soil scarification on the ground beetle fauna of a Caledonian pine forest. Scottish For. 40: 1–9Google Scholar
  54. Richardson RJ, Holliday NJ (1982) Occurrence of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: carabidae) in a boreal forest damaged by fire. can. Ent. 114: 509–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rowe S (1983) Concepts of fire effects on plant individuals and species. in Wein, RW, DA MacLean (eds). The role of fire in Northern circumpolar ecosystems. John Wiley and Son, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. Spellerberg IF (1991) Monitoring ecological changes. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  57. Shugart HH, West DC (1981) Long-term dynamics of forest ecosystems. Am. Sci. 69: 647–652Google Scholar
  58. Stubbe A, Tietze F (1982) Okologische Untersuchugen an carabidengesellschaften entlang einer Trasee immissionsgeschadigter Kiefernforste in der Dubener Heide. Arch. Natur. land, Berlin 22: 27–44Google Scholar
  59. Suffling R (1992) Climate change and boreal forest fires in Fennoscandia and Central Canada. Catena, suppl. 22: 111–132Google Scholar
  60. Suffling R (1993) Climate change and disturbance by fire in boral and sub-alpine forests. in Holten JL, Paulsen G, Oechel WC (eds) Impacts of climatic change on natural ecosystems, with emphasis on boral and arctic/alpine areas. Norwegian Institute of Nature ManagementGoogle Scholar
  61. Suffling R, Lihou KL, Morand Y (1988) Control of landscape diversity by catastrophic disturbance: a theory and a case of fire in a Canadian boreal forest. Environmental Management 12: 73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Šustek Z (1981) Influence of clearcutting on ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in a pine forest. Cechoslovaniae 12: 243–254Google Scholar
  63. Šustek Z (1984) Carabudae and Staphylinidae of two forest reservations and their reactions on surrounding human activity. Biologia (Bratislava) 39: 137–162Google Scholar
  64. Swift MJ, Heal OW, Anderson JM (1979) Decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  65. Teich AH (1970) Cone serotiny and inbreeding in natural populations of Pinus banksiana and Pinus contorta. Can. J. Bot. 48: 1805–1809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Terell-Nield C (1990) Is it possible to age woodlands on the basis of their carabid beetle diversity. The Entomologist 3: 136–145Google Scholar
  67. Thompson ID, Welsh DA (1993) Integrated resource management in boreal forest ecosystems-impediments and solutions. For. Chron. 69: 32–39Google Scholar
  68. Van Wagner CE (1978) Age-class distribution and the forest fire cycle. Can. J. For. res. 8: 220–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Van Wagner CE (1990) Six decades of forest fires in Canada. For. Chron. 66: 133–137Google Scholar
  70. Ward PC, Tithecott AG (1993) The impact of fire management on the boreal landscape of Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Aviation, Flood and Fore Management branch. Publication No. 305Google Scholar
  71. Weber MG (1987) Decomposition, litter fall, and forest floor nutrient dynamics in relation to fire in eastern Ontario jack pine ecosystems. Can. J. For. Res. 17: 1496–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Weber MG, Taylor SW (1992) The use of prescribed burning in the management of Canada’s forested lands. For. Chron. 68: 324–334Google Scholar
  73. Weseloh RM (1985) Changes in population size, dispersal behavior and reproduction of Calosoma sycophanta (Coleoptera: carabidae) associated with changes in gypsy month Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), abundance. Env. Ent. 14: 370–377Google Scholar
  74. Westman WE (1990) Managing for biodiversity. BioScience 40: 26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wiens JA (1989) Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecol. 3: 385–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wilcove DS (1989) Protecting biodiversity in multiple-use lands: lessons from the US forest Service. Trends Ecol. Evol. 4: 385–389Google Scholar
  77. Wright HA, Bailey AW (1982) Fire ecology, United States and Southern Canada. Wiley Intersciences, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luc C. Duchesne
    • 1
  1. 1.Petawawa National Forestry InstituteCanadian Forest ServiceChalk RiverCanada

Personalised recommendations