The Hoehn and Yahr Rating Scale for Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complicated disease in which a number of theoretical and practical considerations on how best to assess the clinical deficit have been published [1–3]. In addition, the utilization of levodopa or dopamine agonists produces a large array of side effects which superimpose upon the motor fluctuations frequently seen in these patients, complicating even more the precise evaluation of disability. Since the introduction of levodopa, a number of clinical rating systems have been suggested and continue to be developed, suggesting that no single scale is completely satisfactory (Table 1). These scales attempt to measure symptoms, signs, and/or functional disability. Subjective methods of assessment of PD include: (a) clinical rating scale, (b) self-rating scale, and (c) functional disability. Simple objective methods include: (a) gait measurements, (b) finger movements, (c) reaction time (computerized), and (d) movement time (computerized). In the present paper, it is our purpose to review the Hoehn and Yahr scale , published in 1967, which is the most popular scale used worldwide for the staging of the functional disability associated with Parkinson’s disease.
KeywordsDementia Cortisol Dexamethasone Neurol Levodopa
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