Computational Analysis on Generic Forms in European Hypersonic Facilities: Standard Model Electre and Hyperboloid-Flare

  • J. Muylaert
  • L. M. G. Walpot
  • G. Durand


Extensive experiments and associated numerical computations have been carried out on two generic forms. The first generic form is a blunt cone called Electre whose purpose is to serve as a standard model in hypersonic wind tunnel testing. The second form is a hyperboloid flare for the study of the separation and reattachment of the boundary layer in front of a deflected control flap. The Electre standard model does not only serve to improve the flow quality of hypersonic tunnels but also to improve the measurement techniques and data reduction procedures. Sensitivity computations with a finite rate catalytic model were performed in high-enthalpy wind tunnel conditions, in particular the influence of the wall temperature has been addressed. The hyperboloid flare turned out to be an excellent test case for CFD validation especially for the high Reynolds laminar perfect gas regime. This axisymmetric generic form provided also the possibility to study the influence of real gas effects on flap efficiency and heating. An increase in flap efficiency resulting from the shrinking of the separated boundary layer region in front of the flap combined with an increase of the pressure recovery on the flap has been computed when extrapolating from high-enthalpy wind tunnel to flight conditions according to the binary scaling law. In order to separate dissociation effects from Mach and Re effects perfect gas computations with variable γ were performed.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams JC, Martindale WR, Mayne AW, Marchand EO (1977) Real gas scale effects on shuttle orbiter laminar boundary layer parameters. J.Spacecraft 14(5)Google Scholar
  2. Barbato M (1993) Heterogeneneous catalysis model for hypersonic flight simulations. Technical Report ESTEC EWP-1731, ESA-ESTECGoogle Scholar
  3. Boudreau AH, Adams JC (1988) Characterization of hypersonic wind tunnel fields. In: AIAA 15th Aerodynamic Testing Conference, San Diego, AIAA Paper 88–2006Google Scholar
  4. Bousquet J, Faubert A, Oswald J (1994) Computations of laminar hypersonic flows around the hyperboloid flare. Technical Report H-NT-O-2078-ONERAGoogle Scholar
  5. Brenner G, Kordulla W, Bruck S (1993) Further simulations of flows past hyperboloid-flare configurations. Technical Report DLR-H-NT-O-2058, DLR-BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  6. Durand G (1992) Hyperboloid flare combination: a hypersonic test case for the qualification of compressible Navier-Stokes codes including high temperature effects. Technical Report DLA/ED/3A no 032.09.92, CNESGoogle Scholar
  7. Muylaert J, Walpot L, Haeuser J, Sagnier P, Devezeaux D, Papirnyk O, Lourme D (1992) Standard model testing in the European high entalpy facility F4 and extrapolation to flight. In: AIAA 17th Aerospace Ground testing Conference, Nashville, TN. AIAA Paper 92–3905Google Scholar
  8. Nasuti F, Barbato M, Bruno C (1993) Material-dependent catalytic recombination modeling for hypersonic flows. In: AIAA 28th Thermophysics Conf., Orlando, FL. AIAA Paper 93–2840Google Scholar
  9. Netterfield MP (1991) Computation of the aerodynamics of spinning bodies using a point implicit method. In: Proceeding of the First European Symposium on Aerothermodynamics for Space Vehicles. AIAA Paper 91–0339Google Scholar
  10. Schwane R (1993) Numerische Simulation von Stoss-Grenzschischt Wechselwirkungen und deren Auswirkung auf den Wirkungsgrad von Aerodynamischen Kontrollelementen. In: 6th STAB JahresberichtGoogle Scholar
  11. Schwane R, Muylaert J (1992) Design of the validation experiment: Hyperboloid-flare. Technical Report Document: YPA/1256/RS, ESA-ESTECGoogle Scholar
  12. Walpot LMG (1991) Quasi one-dimensional inviscid nozzle flow in vibrational and chemical non-equilibrium. Diploma Thesis, Tech. Rep. ESTEC EWP-1664, TU Delft, Dept. Aerosp. Eng.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Muylaert
    • 1
  • L. M. G. Walpot
    • 2
  • G. Durand
    • 3
  1. 1.Aerothermodynamics Section YPAESA-ESTECNoordwijkThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Aerospace EngineeringDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Aerothermodynamics and Guidance, Navigation & Control SectionESA-CNESToulouseFrance

Personalised recommendations