Prostate-Specific Antigen and Detecting Early Prostate Cancer: The Importance of Race and Patient Age
Although discovered more than 20 years ago, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) did not receive clinical attention until 1986. Since then, however, it has been the center of intense investigation at both the basic science and clinical levels. As a result, much has been learned about this glycoprotein, and today it must be considered the most useful tumor marker available for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (Oesterling 1991). It is superior not only to prostatic acid phosphatase but also to digital rectal examination (DRE).
KeywordsIschemia Adenocarcinoma Perforation Fishing Prostatitis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Brendler CB, Carmichael M, Walsh PC, Epstein JI (1993) Radical prostatectomy (RP) for nonpalpable prostate cancer diagnosed by needle biopsy: pathologic and clinical findings. J Urol 149:378AGoogle Scholar
- Cooner WH (1993) Early diagnosis of prostate cancer. In: Campbell’s urology, 6th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, Update 4:1–10Google Scholar
- Crawford ED (1993) Report on the 1992 prostate cancer awareness week. J Urol 149:55AGoogle Scholar
- Dalkin BL, Ahmann F, Southwick P, Bottaccini MR (1993b) Derivation of normal prostate specific antigen (PSA) level by age. J Urol 149:413AGoogle Scholar
- Oesterling JE, Bilhartz DL, Tindall DJ (1991) Clinically useful serum markers for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. II. Prostate-specific antigen. Am Urol Assoc Update Ser 10:137–144Google Scholar
- Scaletscky R, Koch MO, Eckstein CW, Smith JA Jr (1993) Pathologic findings in prostate cancer detected because of PSA elevation. J Urol 149:303AGoogle Scholar
- Stenman UH, Leinonen J, Alfthan H, Rannikko S, Tuhkanen K, Alfthan O (1991) A complex between prostate-specific antigen and alphal-antichymotrypsin is the major form of prostate-specific antigen in serum of patients with prostatic cancer: assay of the complex improves clinical sensitivity for cancer. Cancer Res 51:222–226PubMedGoogle Scholar