Historical Developments



Since 1967, the population of the world has expanded by 2 billion people; in 55 wars and civil wars, 9.6 million people lost their lives. During the same period, the gross world product has doubled, the world-wide level of debt has increased more than tenfold. The global consumption of energy has increased by a factor of 2.5. In the past 25 years, we have had two oil crises, about three dozen coups d’état, and at least three serious nuclear reactor accidents (Windscale 1958, Three-Mile-Island, 1979, and Chernobyl, 1986). In 1967, the United Nations had 122 member states; since then, their number has increased by 56, giving a total of 179 in 1992.


Waste Heat Strange Attractor Short History Pitchfork Bifurcation Cold Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Angrist S, Hepler L (1967) Demons, poetry and life: A thermodynamic view. Texas Quarterly 10: 27–28Google Scholar
  2. Beer S (1972) Brain of the firm. Allan Lane/Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Boltzmann L (1876) In:Lectures on Gas Theory Part I and Part II. (1976) translated by S.G.Bush, University of California Press, Berkley, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  4. Boulding K The economics of the coming spaceship earth In: Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy, edited by Henry Jarret, Baltimore:John Hopkins Press, p 3–14Google Scholar
  5. Brillouin L (1956) Science information theory. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Bunge M (1979) Ontology II. A world of systems, Treatise on basic philosophy, vol. 4 Reidel, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cambel AB, (1991) Applied chaos theory - A paradigm of complexity. George Washington University. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  8. Fritsch B (31993) Mensch-Umwelt Wissen. Third Ed. Verlag der Fachvereine an den Schweiz. Hochschulen und Techniken (vdf) ZuerichGoogle Scholar
  9. Haken H (1988) Information and self organisation, a macroscopic approach to complex systems. Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  10. Heilbronner RL (1975) An enquiry into the human prospect. Calder Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Lorentz EN,(1963) Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J Atmos Sci 20:130–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Meadows DH, et al (1972) The limits to growth. New York, Universe BooksGoogle Scholar
  13. Parker TS, Chua LO (1987) Chaos: A tutorial for engineers. Proc of the IEEE, vol 75 no. 8Google Scholar
  14. Prigogine I, Stengers I (1985) Order out of chaos. Flamingo/Fontana LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Rifkin J (1980) Entropy. The Viking Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Roegen NG (1976) Energy and economic myths. Institutional and Analytical Economic Essays. Pergamon Press Inc. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Roegen NG (1977) The steady state and ecological salvation. Bio Science. 268Google Scholar
  18. Schroedinger E (1944) What is life? Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  19. Seifritz W (1987) Wachstum, Ruekkopplung und Chaos, Carl Hanser Verlag, MuenichGoogle Scholar
  20. Shannon CE (1948) A mathematical theory of communication. Bell Syst Tech J 27 pp 379, 623,Google Scholar
  21. Shannon CE, Weaver W (1964) The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois PressGoogle Scholar
  22. Stonier T (1990) The mathematical theory of communication, University of Illinois PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HerrlibergSwitzerland
  2. 2.HurdenSwitzerland
  3. 3.WindischSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations