A significant and ever increasing proportion of the human population of planet Earth is becoming informed — and concerned — about changes to the Earth’s environment; the atmosphere is rightly the focus of particular interest nowadays. Such changes may be either natural, such as due to volcanoes (both El Chichon in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo in 1991 put vast quantities of dust and sulphur into the lower stratosphere), or anthropogenic. Enhancement of the so-called greenhouse effect is caused by increasing the concentrations of infrared active trace gases in the atmosphere. This may be due to increased evaporation from the oceans (water vapour, H2O), deforestation or the burning of fossil fuels (carbon dioxide, CO2), increases of the cattle population or the area of paddy fields (methane, CH4), increases of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), or changed agricultural practices involving fertilizers (nitrous oxide, N2O).
KeywordsSolar Wind Interplanetary Magnetic Field Polar Vortex Ozone Hole Geomagnetic Field Line
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Domingo V, Schmidt R, Poland AI, Goldstein ML (1988) Soho and Cluster — the scientific instruments. ESA Bull 56: 25–33Google Scholar
- Hurren PJ, Smith AJ, Carpenter DL, Inan US (1986) Burst precipitation induced perturbations on multiple VLF propagation paths in Antarctica. Ann Geophys 4: 311–318Google Scholar
- Ishizu M, Saka O, Kitamura T-I, Fukunishi H, Sato N, Fujii R (1981) Polarization study of Pel and Pcl-2 band pulsations at conjugate stations. Mem Natl Inst Polar Res Spec Issue, Japan 18: 118–126Google Scholar
- Lin ZM, Benbrook JR, Bering EA, Byrne GJ, Friis-Christensen E, Liang D, Liao B, Theall J (1990) Observations of ionospheric flux ropes above South Pole. Geophysical Monograph 58. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 581–590Google Scholar
- Lockwood M, Coates A (1992) When the solar wind blows. New Sci 1811: 25–30Google Scholar
- O’Neill A (ed) (1990) Dynamics, transport and photochemistry in the middle atmosphere of the southern hemisphere. NATO ASI Series C 321. Kluwer, Dordrecht, 257 ppGoogle Scholar
- Rycroft MJ (1990) Antarctic research on the atmosphere and solar-terrestrial physics. Geodat Geophys Veroff Reihe I Berlin 15: 211–238Google Scholar
- Shanklin JD, Gardiner BG (1989) The Antarctic ozone hole. British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, 9 ppGoogle Scholar
- Shapland D, Rycroft M (1984) Spacelab — research in Earth orbit. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 192 ppGoogle Scholar