Developmental Toxicity — Magnitude of the Problem

  • Richard Wiger
Conference paper
Part of the Archives of Toxicology, Supplement 16 book series (TOXICOLOGY, volume 16)


Human reproduction is a complex process, and can be disturbed in many phases by host as well as environmental factors. It has therefore been difficult to distinguish environmental causes of abnormal development from other factors related to the parents’ innate properties. Among the environmental factors, chemical insult to the conceptus can result in any one or more of the following manifestations of developmental toxicity: Death, structural abnormality, growth alteration, and/or functional deficit. These manifestations encompass a wide array of adverse developmental endpoints, such as spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, malformations, early postnatal mortality, reduced birth weight, mental retardation, sensory loss, and other adverse functional or physical changes that are manifested postnatally (Fed. Reg. 1991).


Cerebral Palsy Congenital Malformation Perinatal Mortality Intrauterine Growth Retardation Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Wiger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental MedicineNational Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway

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