Advertisement

Developmental Toxicity — Magnitude of the Problem

  • Richard Wiger
Conference paper
Part of the Archives of Toxicology, Supplement 16 book series (TOXICOLOGY, volume 16)

Abstract

Human reproduction is a complex process, and can be disturbed in many phases by host as well as environmental factors. It has therefore been difficult to distinguish environmental causes of abnormal development from other factors related to the parents’ innate properties. Among the environmental factors, chemical insult to the conceptus can result in any one or more of the following manifestations of developmental toxicity: Death, structural abnormality, growth alteration, and/or functional deficit. These manifestations encompass a wide array of adverse developmental endpoints, such as spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, malformations, early postnatal mortality, reduced birth weight, mental retardation, sensory loss, and other adverse functional or physical changes that are manifested postnatally (Fed. Reg. 1991).

Keywords

Cerebral Palsy Congenital Malformation Perinatal Mortality Intrauterine Growth Retardation Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. EPA (1991) Guidelines for Developmental Toxicity Risk Assessment. Federal Register (Dec. 5, 1991) 63798–63826Google Scholar
  2. Kalter H. (1991) Five-decade international trends in the relation of perinatal mortality and congenital malformations: stillbirths and neonatal death compared. Int J Epidemiol 20:173–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Luke B. (1990) The metabolic basis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. Int J Fertil 35:333–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Medina E, Kaempffer AM. (1991) Smoking and health in Chile. Bol Sanit Panam 111:112–121Google Scholar
  5. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (1991) An evaluation and assessment of the state of the science: genetics and teratology. U.S. Dept Health Human Service, pp. 1–182Google Scholar
  6. Roussounis SH, Hubley PA, Dear PR. (1993) Five-year-follow-up of very low birthweight infants: neurological and psychological outcome. Child Care Health Dev 19:45–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Spohr H-L, Willms J, Steinhausen H-C. (1993) Prenatal alcohol exposure and long-term developmental consequences. Lancet 341:907–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Strömland K. (1992) Malformations of the eyes caused by maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy. Nordisk Medicin 107:313–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Vorhees CV, Butcher RE. (1982) Behavioural Teratogenicity. In: Developmental Toxicology (ed.) K Snell. Croom Helm, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Wæver E, Brandt B, Mortensen T, Jendresen M, Nielsen OH. (1992) The prognoses in neonates with birth weights below 1500 grammes requiring surgery. Ugeskr Læger (Denmark) 154:416–418Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Wiger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental MedicineNational Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations