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Coronary Angiography in the Diagnosis of Graft Failure

  • P. R. Lichtlen
  • H. Hausmann

Abstract

Despite its known limitations [1–3] coronary angiography has remained the standard technique to demonstrate alterations of coronary artery bypass grafts, especially so-called graft disease. This concerns above all those graft changes which lead to ischemic events such as stable and unstable angina pectoris or acute myocardial infarction. These alterations consist predominantly in localized, high-grade luminal narrowings (diameter stenoses ≥70%) of the graft body or the proximal or distal anastomoses or in occlusions of grafts due mainly to progressing atherosclerotic plaque formation with or without thrombotic occlusion. Graft angiograms are therefore always indicated when typical ischemic symptoms arise, or prophylactically when grafts approach the age at which the risk of vein graft disease increases significantly (5 and more years). This applies especially to patients with combined risk factors [4] and increased progression of graft atherosclerosis and plaque formation, as it is established that plaque rupture followed by thrombotic occlusion and myocardial infarction involves not only high-grade, symptomatic but also low-grade (<50%), clinically asymptomatic plaques not detectable by non-invasive means [2, 5, 6].

Keywords

Digital Subtraction Angiography Graft Failure Vein Graft Internal Mammary Artery Native Coronary Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. R. Lichtlen
  • H. Hausmann

There are no affiliations available

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