Behavioral Disturbances and Pharmacology of Borna Disease

Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 190)


Whether Borna disease virus (BDV) or related infectious agents cause human disease remains controversial (see Bode and Amsterdam, this volume). Nonetheless, the Borna disease (BD) system has unique features that indicate it will be of utility in elucidating the pathogenesis of human neuropsychiatric diseases. Animals infected with BDV have characteristic abnormalities in social and motor behaviors. The biologic basis for these behavioral disturbances has begun to emerge through studies in rats experimentally infected with BDV. This chapter will have three objectives: (1) describe the spectrum of behavioral disturbances in natural and experimental BD in several host species; (2) define the neuroanatomy, neuropharmacology and neurochemistry of BD in the rat system (3) draw parallels between BDV-induced behavioral syndromes and human diseases.


Nucleus Accumbens Ventral Tegmental Area Behavioral Disturbance Tree Shrew Behavioral Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Carbone KM, Duchala CS, Griffin JW, Kincaid AL, Narayan O (1987) Pathogenesis of Borna disease in rats: evidence that intra-axonal spread is the major route for virus dissemination and the determinant for disease incubation. J Virol 61: 3431–3440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Carbone KM, Park SW, Rubin SA, Waltrip RW 2nd, Vogelsong GB (1991a) Borna disease: association with a maturation defect in the cellular immune response. J Virol 65: 6154–6164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Carbone KM, Moench TR, Lipkin Wl (1991b) Borna disease virus in astrocytes, Schwann cells and ependymal cells in persistently infected rats: location of viral genomic and messenger RNAs by in situ hybridization. Jnl Neuropathol Exp Neurol 50: 205–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cooper JR, Bloom FE, Roth RH (1991) The biochemical basis of neuropharmacology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 298Google Scholar
  5. Dittrich W, Bode L, Ludwig H, Kao M, Schneider K (1989) Learning deficiencies in Borna disease virus- infected but clinically healthy rats. Biol Psychiatr 26: 818–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fallon JH, Loughlin SE (1987) Monoamine innervation of the cerebral cortex and a theory of the role of monoamines in cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. In: Jones EG, Peters A (eds) Cerebral cortex, vol 6. Plenum, New York, pp 41–127Google Scholar
  7. Fray PJ, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW, Koob, GF, Iversen SD (1980) An observational method for quantifying the behavioural effects of dopamine agonists: contrasting effects of d-amphetamine and apomorphine. Psychopharmacology 69: 253–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goldstein M. Anderson LT, Reuben R, Dancis J (1985) Self-mutilation in Lesch-Nyhan disease is caused by dopaminergic denervation. Lancet 1: 338–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kao M, Ludwig H, Gosztonyi G (1984) Adaptation of Borna disease virus to the mouse. J Gen Virol 65: 1845–1849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Krey H, Ludwig H, Rott R (1979) Spread of infectious virus along the optic nerve into the retina in Borna disease virus-infected rabbits. Arch Virol 61: 283–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. LeMoal M, Simon H (1991) Mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic network: functional and regulatory roles. Physiol Rev 71: 155–234Google Scholar
  12. LeMoal M, Cardo B Stinus L (1969) Influence of ventral mesencephalic lessions on various spontaneous and conditioned behaviors in the rat. Physiol Behav 4: 567–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. LeMoal M, Stinus L, Galey D (1976) Radiofrequency lesion of the ventral mesencephalic tegmentum: neurological and behavioural considerations. Exp Neurol 50: 521–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ludwig H, Thein P (1977) Demonstration of specific antibodies in the central nervous system of horses naturally infected with Borna disease virus. Med Microbiol Immunol 163: 215–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ludwig H, Bode L, Gosztonyi G (1988) Borna disease: a persistent virus infection of the central nervous system. Prog Med Virol 35: 107–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Morales JA, Herzog S, Kompter C, Frese K, Rott R (1988) Axonal transport of Borna disease virus along olfactory pathways in spontaneously and experimentally infected rats. Med Microbiol Immunol 177: 51–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Narayan O, Herzog S, Frese K, Scheefers, Rott R (1983) Behavioral disease in rats caused by immunopathological responses to persistent Borna virus in the brain. Science 220: 1401–1403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rubin SA, Waltrip RW 2nd, Bautista JR, Carbone KM (1993) Borna disease virus in mice: host-specific differences in disease expression. J Virol 67: 548–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Solbrig MV, Koob GF, Lipkin Wl (1992a) Movement and behavior disorders in rats with Borna disease (BD) (Expedited poster presentation at 44th American Academy of Neurology Meeting)Google Scholar
  20. Solbrig MV, Koob GF, Loughlin S, Tsai W, Lipkin Wl (1992b) Borna disease virus causes dopamine disturbances in rats. Society for Neuroscience 1: 665 (abstract)Google Scholar
  21. Sprankel H, Richarz K, Ludwig H, Rott R (1978) Behavior alterations in tree shrews (Tupaia glis, Diard 1820) induced by Borna disease virus. Med Microbiol Immunol 165: 1–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Stitz L, Krey H, Ludwig H (1980) Borna disease in Rhesus monkeys as a model for uveo-cerebral symptoms. J Med Virol 6: 333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Waelchli RO, Ehrensperger F, Metzler A, Winder C (1985) Borna disease in sheep. Vet Rec 117: 499–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zwick W (1939) Borna’sche Krankheit und Encephalomyelitis der Tiere. In: Gildemeister F, Haagen E, Waldmann O (eds) Handbuch der Viruskrankheiten, Vol 2. Fischer, Jena, Germany, pp 252–354Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anatomy and NeurobiologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations