Permian Fusulinaceans

  • C. A. Ross


Among late Paleozoic Foraminifera (Ross and Ross 1991), the superfamily Fusulinacea (Figs. 1, 2) was a remarkably diverse group of rapidly evolving, large calcareous protozoans (RauserChernousova and Fursenko 1959; Kahler and Kahler 1966-1969; Ross 1967; Rozovskaya 1975; Loeblich and Tappan, 1988). During the Permian, they reached gigantic sizes for protozoans. Many attained lengths of several centimeters and at least one species was more than 10 cm long. Fusulinaceans were common in various carbonate facies and, in the middle and later parts of the Permian, they were major carbonate contributors to reefs and other shallow, warm-water carbonate buildups (Toriyama 1967; Kanmera et al. 1976; Ross 1982a, b). They were rare or lacking in predominately cherty and siliciclastic, cooler-water stratigraphic facies.


Late Carboniferous Akad Nauk SSSR Oceanic Plateau Tethys Realm Western Cordillera 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Chen Xu, Wang Jianhus (1983) The fusulinids of the Maping Limestone of the Upper Carboniferous from Yishan, Guangxi. Palaeontologica Sinica, vol 164, New Ser B 19. Science Press, Beijing, pp 1–139, 25 pisGoogle Scholar
  2. Chuvashov BI, Ivanova RM, Kolchina AN (1984) Upper Paleozoic deposits on the eastern slope of the Urals. Acad Sci USSR, Ural Sci Cen, Sverdlovsk, pp 1–230 (English title, in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. Chuvashov BI, Leven EYa, Davydov ID (1986) Pogranichnye otlozheniya Karbona i Permi Urala, Priurals’y, i sredney Asii (biostratigrafiya i korrelyacshiya). Akad Nauk SSSR, Ural Nauch Chen, Inst Geo Geokhim Akad, pp 1–152Google Scholar
  4. Dunbar CO, Skinner JW (1937) Permian Fusulinidae of Texas, the geology of Texas, vol 3, pt 2. Univ Texas Bull 3701: 518–825, pis 42–81Google Scholar
  5. Harker P, Thorsteinsson R (1960) Permian Rocks of the Grin-nell Peninsula, Arctic Archipelago. Geol Surv Can Mem 309: 89 pp, 25 pisGoogle Scholar
  6. Kahler F (1983) Fusuliniden aus Karbon und Perm der Kar-nischen Alpen und der Karawanken. Carinthia II Sonderh 41: 1–107, pis 1–11Google Scholar
  7. Kahler F, Kahler G (1966–1969) Fusulinida (Foraminifera). In: Westphal F (ed) Fossilium catalogus: Animalia, pars 111–114. Junk, s-Gravenhage, pp 1–974Google Scholar
  8. Kanmera K (1957) Revised classification of Cancellina and Neoschwagerina and evolution of Sumatrininae and Neo-schwagerininae. Kyushu Univ Fac Sci Mem Ser D Geol 6: 47–64Google Scholar
  9. Kanmera K, Ishii K, Toriyama R (1976) The evolution and extinction patterns of Permian fusulinaceans. In: Kobayashi T, Hashimoto W (eds) Contributions geology and paleontology of Southeast Asia, vol 17. Univ Press, Tokyo, pp 129–154Google Scholar
  10. Kochansky-Devidé V (1975) Die Fusulinidengattungen Jugo-slawiens und die neu aufgestellten Taxa. Geol Vjesn 28: 401–407Google Scholar
  11. Kochansky-Devidé V, Ramovs A (1966) Oberkarbonische Mikrofossilien und stratigraphische Entwicklung in den Westkarawanken. Slov Akad Anan Unetn Class IV Diss 9/7, Ljubljana pp 301–333.Google Scholar
  12. Kotlyar GV, Zakharov YaD, Kropacheva GS, Pronina GP, Chediya IO, Burago VI (1989) Przdnepermskiy Etap evolyaschii organicheskolgo Mira, Midiyskii yarus SSSR. Nauka Leningrad, pp 1–184.Google Scholar
  13. Leven EYa (1963) O filogenii vyschchikh fuzulinid i ras-chlenenii verkhnepermskikh otlozheniy Tetisa [Phylogeny of the higher fusulinids and sequence of the paleo Tethys upper Permian]. Akad Nauk SSSR, Geol Inst Vopros Mikropaleontol 7: 57–70.Google Scholar
  14. Leven EYa (1964) K systematike semeistva Verbeekininae-Fuzulinida [Systematics of the subfamily Verbeekininae, Fusulinida]. Paleontol Zh 4: 23–31 [translated in: Int Geol Rev 7; 11: 2066–2073]Google Scholar
  15. Leven EYa (1967) Stratigraphy and fusulinids of the Pamirs Permian deposits. Geol Inst Acad Sci USSR Trudy 167: 1–224, 39 pis (English title, in Russian)Google Scholar
  16. Leven EYa (1980) Objasnitelnaja zapiska k stratigraficeskoj shkale permskich otloshenji oblasti Tetis. VSEGEI 52, LeningradGoogle Scholar
  17. Likharev BK (1966) Stratigraphy of the USSR Permian System. Nedra, Moscow, pp 1–536 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  18. Loeblich AR Jr, Tappan H (1987/1988) Foraminiferal genera and their classification, vol 1 + 2. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, vol 1: pp 1–970, vol 2: pp 1–212 + 847 pisGoogle Scholar
  19. Mikhaylova ZP (1974) Fuzulinidy verkhnegoKarbona Pechorskogo Priural’ya. Akad Nauk SSSR, Komi Filial Inst Geol. Nauk, Leningrad, pp 1–116, pis 1–17Google Scholar
  20. Miklukho-Maklay AD (1957) Nekotorye fuzulinidy permi Kryma. Uchenye Zapiski Leningrad Univ 225 Ser Geol Nauk 9: 93–159, pi 1–14.Google Scholar
  21. Miklukho-Maklay AD (1963) Verkhii Paleozoiy Sredney Asii. Izdat Leningrad Univ, pp 1–330Google Scholar
  22. Möller V von (1877) UberFusulinen und ahnliche Foraminiferen-Formen des russischenKohlenkalks. N Jahrb Mineral Geol Palaeontol 1877: 139–146.Google Scholar
  23. Möiler V von (1878) Die spiralgewundenen Foraminiferen des russischen Kohlenkalks. Acad Imperial Sci, St Peters-bourg, Mem Ser 7; 25, 9: 1–147, pis 1–15.Google Scholar
  24. Monger JWH, Ross CA (1971) Distribution of fusulinaceans in the western Canadian Cordillera. Can J Earth Sci 8: 259–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nakazawa K (1989) Correlation of the marine Upper Permian of Tethys. In: 11. Congr Int Stratigraphie et géologie du Carbonifèere, Beijing, 1987. CR 2: 229–234.Google Scholar
  26. Ozawa T (1970) Notes on the phylogeny and classification of the Superfamily Verbeekinoidea. Kyushu Univ, Mem Fac Sci Ser D Geol 20 (1): 17–58Google Scholar
  27. Ozawa T (1987) Permian fusulinacean biogeographic provinces in Asia and their tectonic implications. In: Taira A, Tashiro M (eds) Historical biogeography and plate tectonic evolution of Japan and eastern Asia. Terrapub, Tokyo, pp 45–63Google Scholar
  28. Ozawa T, Kobayashi F, Ishii K, Okimura Y (1990) Akiyoshi Carboniferous to Permian Akyoshi Limestone Group. In: Guidebook for field trip no. 4, Benthos ’90. 4th Int Symp Benthic Foraminifera, Sendai, Jpn 1990, pp 1–31, pis 1–13Google Scholar
  29. Rauser-Chernousova DM, Chuvashov BI (1980) Biostratigrafiya Artinskogo i Kungurskogo Yaryso v Urala. Akad Nauk SSSR, Ural Nauchn Chent Sverdlovsk, pp 1–150Google Scholar
  30. Rauser-Chernousova DM, Fursenko AV (1959) Osnovy paleontologii, Prostejshie [Fundamentals of paleontology, pt 1, Protozoa]. Akad Nauk SSSR, Moscow, pp 1–368, 13 pisGoogle Scholar
  31. Ross CA (1960) Fusulinids from the Hess Member of the Leonard Formation, Leonardian Series (Permian), Glass Mountains, Texas. Contrib Cushman Found Foraminiferal Res 11: 117–133Google Scholar
  32. Ross CA (1962) Fusulinids from the Leonard Formation (Permian), western Glass Mountains, Texas. Contrib Cushman Found Foraminiferal Res 13: 1–21Google Scholar
  33. Ross CA (1963a) Fusulinids from the Word Formation (Permian), Glass Mountains, Texas. Contrib Cushman Found Foraminiferal Res 14: 17–31Google Scholar
  34. Ross CA (1963b) The Standard Wolfcampian Series (Permian), Glass Mountains, Texas. Geol Soc Am Mem 88: 205 ppGoogle Scholar
  35. Ross CA (1967) Development of Fusulinid (Foraminiferida) faunal realms. J Paleontol 4l: 1341–1354Google Scholar
  36. Ross CA (1979) Evolution of Fusulinacea (Protozoa) in Late Paleozoic space and time. In: Gray J, Boucot AJ (eds) Historical Biogeography, Plate Tectonics, and the Changing Environment. Oregon State Univ, Corvallis, pp 215–226Google Scholar
  37. Ross CA (1982a) Paleobiology of Fusulinaceans. In: 3rd N Am Paleontol Convent Proc 2: 441–445Google Scholar
  38. Ross CA (1982b) Paleozoic Foraminifera - fusulinids. In: Broadhead TW (ed) Foraminifera - notes for a short course organized by MA Buzas and BK Sen Gupta. Univ Tennessee, Dep Geol Sci, Stud Geol 6: 163–176Google Scholar
  39. Ross CA, Ross JRP (1983) Late Paleozoic accreted terranes of western North America. In: Stevens CH (ed) Pre-Jurassic Rocks in Western North American Suspect Terranes. Pac Sec Soc Econ Paleontol Mineral, Los Angeles, pp 7–22Google Scholar
  40. Ross CA, Ross JRP (1987a) Late Paleozoic sea levels and depositional sequences. In: Ross CA, Haman D (eds) Timing and Depositional History of Eustatic Sequences: Constraints on Seismic Stratigraphy. Cushman Found Foraminiferal Res Spec Publ 24: 137–149Google Scholar
  41. Ross CA, Ross JRP (1987b) Biostratigraphic zonation of late Paleozoic depositional sequences. In: Ross CA, Haman D (eds) Timing and Depositional History of Eustatic Sequences: Constraints on Seimic Stratigraphy. Cushman Found Foraminiferal Res Spec Publ 24: 151–168Google Scholar
  42. Ross CA, Ross JRP (1988) Late Paleozoic transgressive-regressive deposition. In: Wilgus CK, Hastings BS, Kendall CGStC, Posamentier H, Ross CA (eds) Sea-level Changes: An Integrated Approach. Soc Econ Paleontol Mineral Spec Publ 42: 227–247Google Scholar
  43. Ross CA, Ross JRP (1991) Paleozoic Foraminifera. Biosystems 25: 39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ross JRP, Ross CA (1989) Late Paleozoic biogeography and the dispersal of shallow water marine faunas. In: 11. Congr Int Stratigraphie et geologie du Carbonifere, Beijing, 1987, CR, vol 3, pp 343–350Google Scholar
  45. Rozovskaya SE (1975) Sostav, sistema i filogenia otryada Fusulinida. Akad Nauk SSSR Paleontol Inst Trudy 149: 1–268Google Scholar
  46. Sheng JC (1963) Permian fusulinids of Kwangsi, Kueichow, and Szechuan. Palaeontol Sin 149, New ser B 10: 1–247Google Scholar
  47. Sheng JC, Rui Lin, Chen Chu-shen (1985) Permian and Triassic sedimentary facies and paleogeography of South China. In: Nakazawa K, Dickins JM (eds) The Tethys. Univ Press, Tokai, pp 59–80Google Scholar
  48. Skinner JW, Wilde GL (1955) New fusulinids from the Permian of West Texas. J Paleontol 29: 927–940Google Scholar
  49. Skinner JW, Wilde GL (1965) Permian biostratigraphy and fusulinid faunas of the Shasta Lake area, northern California. Univ Kansas, Paleontol Contrib Protozoa, Art 6: 1–98, pis 1–65Google Scholar
  50. Skinner JW, Wilde GL (1966) Permian fusulinids from Sicily. Univ Kansas Paleontol Contrib Pap 8: 1–16, pis 1–20Google Scholar
  51. Skinner JW, Wilde GL (1967) Permian Foraminifera from Tunisia. Univ Kansas Paleontol Contrib Pap 30: 1–22, pis 1–32Google Scholar
  52. Skinner JW, Wilde GL (1969) Permian Foraminifera from Turkey. Univ Kansas Paleontol Contrib Pap 36: 1–14, pis 1–32Google Scholar
  53. Sun, Qiao-li, Zhang, Lin-xin (1985) Upper Carboniferous fusulinids from the Altun Mountains, Xinjiang. Acta Micropaleontol Sin 2: 49–60, 2 pisGoogle Scholar
  54. Thompson ML (1954) American Wolfcampian fusulinids. Univ Kansas Paleontol Contrib Protozoa, Art 5: 1–226, pis 1–52Google Scholar
  55. Toriyama R (1967) The fusulinacean zones of Japan. Kyushu Univ Mem Fac Sci Ser D Geol 18: 36–260Google Scholar
  56. Wei Jiayong, Xiao Weimin, Wang-Hongdi, Dong Wenlan, Feng Rulin (1987) Carboniferous and Permian stratigraphy in Guizhou. In: 11. Congr Int Stratigraphie et geologie du Carbonifere, Beijing, 1987. Guidebook Excursion 5: 1–69, pis 1–10Google Scholar
  57. Wilde GL (1990) Practical fusulinid zonation of the Permian basin. W Texas Geol Soc Bull 29: 5–15, 28–34Google Scholar
  58. Xu Hui-Iong, Sun Weu-han, Hou Ji-hui (1987) Carboniferous and Permian stratigraphy in Shanxi. In: 11. Congr Int Stratigraphie et geologie du Carbonifere, Beijing, 1987. Guidebook Excursion 1: 1–66Google Scholar
  59. Yang, Tengqing (1989) Carboniferous paleobiogeographic provinces of China. In: 11. Congr Int Stratigraphie et geologie du Carbonifere, Beijing, 1987. C R 3: 351–362Google Scholar
  60. Zhang Linxin (ed) (1987) Carboniferous stratigraphy in China. In: Contrib 11th Int Congr Carboniferous stratigraphy and Geology, 1987, Beijing, China. Science Press, Beijing, 160 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Ross
    • 1
  1. 1.GeoBioStratBellinghamUSA

Personalised recommendations