Der anabole Stoffwechsel des Chloroplasten

  • Helmut Kindl
Part of the Springer-Lehrbuch book series (SLB)


Ein photoautotropher Organismus wird durch die Funktion des Chloroplasten ernährt. Die Bereitstellung von ATP und NADPH durch lichtabhängige ET-Ketten ist die Voraussetzung für die weiteren Aktivitäten des Chloroplasten. Er stellt durch Photoassimilierung Zwischenstufen und Kohlenhydrate her, reduziert Stickstoff-Verbindungen auf die Stufe von Aminen und Schwefel auf die Stufe von Sulfid. Darüber hinaus hat sich der Chloroplast — fast wie ein richtiger Prokaryont — die Fähigkeit erhalten, Stoffwechselwege autonom durchzuführen, etwa die Lipid- und Aminosäure-Synthesen.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Clausmeyer, S, Klosgen, RB, Herrmann, RG (1993) Protein import into chloroplasts — the hydrophilic lumenal proteins exhibit unexpected import and sorting specificities in spite of structurally conserved transit peptides. J Biol Chem 268: 13869–13876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Flachmann, R, Michalowski, CB, Loeffelhardt, W, Bohnert, HJ (1993) SecY, an integral subunit of the bacterial preprotein translocase, is encoded by a plastid genome. J Biol Chem 268: 7514–7519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Forreiter, C, Apel, K (1993) Light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities and 2 distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase polypeptides in mountain pine (Pinus mugo). Planta 190: 536–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Golz, A, Lichtenthaler, HK (1993) Isolation and characterization of acetyl-CoA synthetase from etiolated radish seedlings. J Plant Physiol 141: 276–280Google Scholar
  5. Herrmann, RG, Westhoff, P, Link, G (1992) Biogenesis of plastids in higher plants. In: Plant Cell Research. Cell Organelles, pp 275–349, Herrmann, RG ed Springer, WienGoogle Scholar
  6. Jahn, D, Verkamp, E, Soli, D (1992) Glutamyl-transfer RNA: a precursor of heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Trends Biochem Sci 17: 215–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kumar, PA, Kruse, E, Andriesse, X, Weisbeek, P, Kloppstech, K (1993) Integration of a cyanobacterial protein involved in nitrate reduction (narB) into isolated Synechococcus but not into pea thylakoid membranes. Eur J Biochem 214: 533–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Martin, W, Lydiate, D, Brinkmann, H, Forkmann, G, Saedler, H, Cerff, R (1993) Molecular phylogenies in angiosperm evolution. Mol Biol Evol 10: 140–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Mullerrober, B, Sonnewald, U, Willmitzer, L (1992) Inhibition of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in transgenic potatoes leads to sugar-storing tubers and influences tuber formation and expression of tuber storage protein genes. EMBO J 11: 1229–1238Google Scholar
  10. Okita, TW, Nakata, PA, Anderson, JM, Sowokinos, J, Morell, M, Preis, J (1990) The subunit structure of potato tuber ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase. Plant Physiol 93: 785–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Perl, A, Shaul, O, Galili, G (1992) Regulation of lysine synthesis in transgenic potato plants expressing a bacterial dihydrodipicolinate synthase in their chloroplasts. Plant Mol Biol 19: 815–823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Schaller, A, Vanafferden, M, Windhofer, V, Bulow, S, Abel, G, Schmid, J, Amrhein, N (1991) Purification and characterization of chorismate synthase from Euglena gracilis — comparison with chorismate synthases of plant and microbial origin. Plant Physiol 97: 1271–1279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Schmidt, A, Jager, K (1992) Open questions about sulfur metabolism in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43: 325–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Schmidt, CL, Danneel, H-J, Schulz, G, Buchanan, BB (1990) Shikimate kinase from spinach chloroplasts. Purification, characterization, and regulatory function in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 93: 758–766PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schmidt, H, Heinz, E (1993) Direct desaturation of intact galactolipids by a desaturase solubilized from spinach (Spinacia oleraceo) chloroplast envelopes. Biochem J 289: 777–782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Soll, J, Alefsen, H (1993) The protein import apparatus of chloroplasts. Physiol Plant 87: 433–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Solomonson, LP, Barber, MJ (1990) Assimilatory nitrate reductase: functional properties and regulation. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 41: 225–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Teucher, T, Heinz, E (1991) Purification of UDP-galactose — diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase from chloroplast envelopes of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L). Planta 184: 319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Valentin, K, Zetsche, K (1990) Rubisco genes indicate a close phylogenetic relation between the plastids of chromophyta and rhodophyta. Plant Mol Biol 15: 575–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wilson, BJ, Gray, AC, Matthews, BF (1991) Bifunctional protein in carrot contains both aspartokinase and homoserine dehydrogenase activities. Plant Physiol 97: 1323–1328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Zeiher, CA, Randall, DD (1991) Spinach leaf acetyl-coenzyme-A synthetase — purification and characterization. Plant Physiol 96: 382–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Kindl
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereich Chemie, BiochemiePhilipps-Universität MarburgMarburgGermany

Personalised recommendations