Regulation of HIV Replication in Monocytes by Interferon

  • J. A. Turpin
  • S. X. Fan
  • B. D. Hansen
  • M. L. Francis
  • L. M. Baca-Regen
  • H. E. Gendelman
  • M. S. Meltzer
Part of the Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology book series (PMSB, volume 14)


The hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the progressive loss of CD4+ T-cells over a prolonged interval. In the infected individual, two types of cells are infected by HIV: CD4+ T-cells and tissue macrophages. Levels of HIV in blood and tissues are dependent upon and change with the stage of the infection. Acute infection, usually lasting weeks to months after initial exposure to the virus, is characterized by a substantial viremia in which HIV actively replicates within blood leukocytes and high titers of free virus are found in plasma (more than 10 000 infectious virions/ml blood) (Clark et al. 1991; Daar et al. 1991). The chronic subclinical phase of infection is notable for low levels of plasma viremia and of virus-infected cells (less than 100 infectious virions/ml blood) (Ho et al. 1989). The major reservoirs for HIV in blood are CD4+ T-cells which are infected at a frequency of about 0.1 to 1% (Schnittman et al. 1989). HIV-infected CD4+ T-cells have on average only one proviral DNA copy integrated into genomic DNA. Less than 0.1% of these infected cells is transcriptionally active at any given time (Harper et al. 1986; Simmonds et al. 1990). During subclinical infection, the frequency of blood cells that express HIV mRNA and presumably produce infectious virus is only 0.01% (Harper et al. 1986; Clarke et al. 1990; Daar et al. 1991). During subclinical disease when very few cells are producing virus in blood, it is likely that cells in tissue provide most of the actively replicating virus that maintains infection during the long latent interval of 8 to 12 years (Lifson et al. 1988).


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Long Terminal Repeat Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Turpin
  • S. X. Fan
  • B. D. Hansen
  • M. L. Francis
  • L. M. Baca-Regen
  • H. E. Gendelman
  • M. S. Meltzer
    • 1
  1. 1.HIV Immunopathogenesis Program, Department of Cellular ImmunologyWalter Reed Army Institute of ResearchUSA

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