Enkephalins as Regulators of Inflammatory Immune Reactions

  • B. D. Janković
  • D. Marić

Abstract

Inflammation is a complex reaction of living tissue which tends to eliminate injurious agents and to repair damaged tissue. Early observations of inflammation showed (a) vascular changes (Virchow 1858), (b) local circulatory disturbances including margination and stacking of leukocytes and their migration through the vascular wall (Cohnheim 1867), and (c) phagocytic elimination of inflammatory agents (Metchnikoff 1893). In 1923 Rossle advanced the concept of “allergic inflammation” as the inflammatory reaction that follows interaction between foreign protein or antigen and antibody in an animal which had previously been in contact with that particular antigen. Studies of inflammation revealed an initial local alteration of cells and tissues (Schade 1923). Lewis (1927) presented evidence that vascular phenomena of the inflammatory reaction are initiated by histamine or other mediators. Menkin (1940) isolated thermolabile and thermostable substances from inflammatory exudates which caused an increase in vascular permeability and emigration of leukocytes. The important observation of Enrich (1956) that inflammatory vascular changes may be induced by certain neurogenic factors stimulated the search for other mediators, regulators, and modulators involved in mechanisms underlying the inflammatory reaction.

Keywords

Permeability Migration Dopamine Migraine Respiration 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. D. Janković
    • 1
  • D. Marić
    • 1
  1. 1.Immunology Research CenterBelgradeYugoslavia

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