Patient-Controlled Analgesia: A Critical Appraisal

  • D. J. Rowbotham
  • G. Smith
Conference paper


Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) has developed in three distinct phases since its introduction in the late 1960s [1]. Initial interest led to the development of several mechanical devices but PCA was used only by a few enthusiasts. Although the early use of PCA for obstetric analgesia was promising, it was eclipsed by a growing preference for epidural analgesia with bupivacaine. The mid-1970s to early 1980s was the second stage in the development of PCA; during this period it was used extensively by several groups of workers as a research tool but not for general clinic use. Much of our understanding of the pharmacodynamics of opioids was derived from work with PCA during this period.


Epidural Analgesia Epidural Morphine Constant Rate Infusion Epidural Group Background Infusion 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Rowbotham
  • G. Smith

There are no affiliations available

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