Large control series reported in the considerable body of literature dealing with diagnostic and interventional thoracoscopy confirm the low mortality and morbidity of the method. Viskum  found only one fatality in over 8000 recorded cases. In a review of the literature by Boutin et al. , the mortality rate was 0.09% in more than 4300 cases. It must, however, be pointed out that these figures primarily involved conventional thoracoscopic interventions for biopsy or to perform pleurodesis in cases of malignant effusions and spontaneous pneumothorax. These interventions are normally performed under local anaesthesia combined with intravenous sedation via one and more seldom two incisions.
KeywordsSpontaneous Pneumothorax Malignant Effusion Pleural Empyema Talc Pleurodesis Thoracic Sympathectomy
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