Heterogeneous Chemistry of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Volcanic Aerosols

  • R. P. Turco
  • K. Drdla
  • A. Tabazadeh
  • P. Hamill
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 8)

Abstract

The chemistry of the stratosphere is strongly influenced by the presence of small particles composed of sulfuric acid, nitric acid and other materials. The ubiquitous background stratospheric aerosol layer is composed of sulfuric acid droplets, while the clouds observed in the polar winter stratosphere (the polar stratospheric clouds, or PSCs) are composed of nitric acid ices. Chemical reactions can occur efficiently on the particle surfaces, and in solution in the case of liquid droplets. Such reactions affect the concentrations of chlorine and nitrogen species in the lower stratosphere, and play a critical role in ozone depletion. Indeed, the “ozone hole” has been shown to be initiated by “heterogeneous” reactions occurring on PSC particles. The origins and properties of sulfate aerosols, PSCs and other observed stratospheric particles are surveyed. Anthropogenic influences on these aerosols are discussed. The heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds, and the chemical processing of air in contact with such clouds, are illustrated using detailed model simulations. The injection of sulfur and chlorine into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions is also investigated. HCl scavenging in volcanic eruption plumes is quantified based on an analysis of the dynamics, physical chemistry and microphysics of eruption columns. It is shown that very little chlorine is likely to enter the stratosphere in volcanic plumes because of efficient HCl absorption in supercooled water that condenses on sulfuric acid aerosols. The possible role of sulfate aerosols — both of volcanic and background origin — as a medium for heterogeneous chemical reactions is assessed. It is argued that the sulfate aerosols can produce significant chemical pertubations in regions of the atmosphere where temperatures drop below about 200 K. The potential contribution of sulfate aerosols to ozone depletion at high latitudes is discussed. Outstanding scientific issues concerning stratospheric aerosols and their chemical effects are summmarized.

Keywords

Dust Hydrate Silicate Sedimentation Vorticity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbatt JPD, Molina MJ (1992) The heterogeneous reaction of HOC1+HC1 → Cl2+H2O on ice and nitric acid trihydrate - Reaction probabilities and stratospheric implications. Geophys Res Lett 19: 461–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adamson AW (1990) Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 5th edn. John Wiley and Sons Inc.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson AT (1974) Chlorine, sulfur and water in magmas and oceans. Geol Soc Am Bull 85: 1485–1492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson JG, Brune WH, Lloyd SA, Toohey DW, Sander SP, Starr WL, Loewenstein M, Podolske JR (1989) Kinetics of O3 destruction by CIO and BrO within the Antarctic vortex - An analysis based on in situ ER-2 data. J Geophys Res 94:11, 480–11,520Google Scholar
  5. Anderson JG, Toohey DW, Brune WH (1991) Free radicals within the Antarctic vortex: The role of CFCs in Antarctic ozone loss. Science 251: 39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnold F, Buhrke Th, Qiu S (1990) Trace gas measurements in the stratospheric eruption cloud of volcano El Chichon using a balloon-borne mass spectrometer: Evidence for the heterogeneous chemistry? Nature 348: 626–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bluth GJ, Doiron SD, Schnetzier CC, Krueger AJ, Walter LS (1992) Global tracking of SO2 clouds from the June, 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions. Geophys Res Lett 19: 151–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brasseur GP, Granier C, Walters W (1990) Future changes in stratospheric ozone and the role of heterogeneous chemistry. Nature 348: 626–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brune WH, Toohey DW, Anderson JG, Chan KR (1990) In situ observations of ClO in the Arctic stratosphere: ER-2 aircraft results from 59 °N to 80 ON latitude. Geophys Res Lett 17: 505–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coffey MT, Mankin WG, Goldman A (1989) Airborne measurements of stratospheric constituents over Antarctica in the austral spring of 1987, 2, Halogen and nitrogen trace gases. J Geophys Res 94:16, 597–16,613Google Scholar
  11. Considine DB, Douglass AR, Stolarski RS (1992) Heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 on background stratospheric aerosols: Comparisons of model results with data. Geophys Res Lett (submitted)Google Scholar
  12. Crutzen PJ, Arnold F (1986) Nitric acid cloud formation in the cold Antarctic stratosphere: A major cause for the springtime ‘ozone hole’. Nature 324: 651–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Delmas RJ (1992) Environmental information from ice cores. Rev Geophys 30: 1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Drdla K, Turco RP (1991) Denitrification through PSC formation: A 1-D model incorporating temperature oscillations J Atmos Chem 12: 319–366Google Scholar
  15. Drdla K, Turco RP, Elliott S (to be published) Heterogeneous chemistry on Antarctic PSCs: A microphysical estimate of the extent of chemical processing. J Geophys ResGoogle Scholar
  16. Drdla K, Turco RP, Bacmeister J, Schoeberl MR, Baumgardner D, Dye DE (1992) The efficiency of chemical processing in lee-wave polar stratospheric clouds. Trans Am Geophys Union, EOS, Supplement, 1992 Spring Meeting, Montreal, p. 68Google Scholar
  17. Dye JE, Gandrud BW, Baumgardner D, Chan KR, Ferry GV, Loewenstein M, Kelly KK, Wilson JC (1990) Observed particle evolution in the polar stratospheric cloud of January 24, 1989. Geophys Res Lett. 17: 413–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elliott S, Turco RP, Toon OB, Hamill P (1990) Incorporation of stratospheric acids into water ice. Geophys Res Lett 17: 425–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elliott S, Turco RP, Jacobson MZ (1992) Mass conserving numerical projections for stabilizing stiff photochemical family systems at long time step. Comp Chem (in press)Google Scholar
  20. Elliott S, Cicerone RJ, Turco RP (1992) Models of the polar ozone depletion with hydrocarbon emissions. J Geophys Res (submitted)Google Scholar
  21. Fahey DW, Kelly KK, Ferry GV, Poole LR, Wilson JC, Murphy DM, Loewenstein M, Chan RK (1989) In-situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water vapor, and aerosols in a polar stratospheric cloud in the Antarctic. J Geophys Res 94:11, 299–11, 315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Farman JC, Gardiner BG, Shanklin JD (1985) Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal C1Ox/NOx interaction. Nature 315: 207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fiocco G, Komhyr WD, Fua D (1989) Is ozone destroyed during the Antarctic winter in the presence of polar stratospheric clouds? Nature 341: 426–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gandrud BW, Sperry PD, Kelly KK, Ferry GV, Chan KR (1989) Filter measurement results from the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. J Geophys Res 94:11, 285–11, 297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hamill P, Turco RP (1988) The ozone hole: The role of polar stratospheric cloud particles. Paper AIAA-88–0211, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 7 pp., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  26. Hamill P, Toon OB, Kiang CS (1977) Microphysical processes affecting the stratospheric aerosol particles. J Atmos Sci 34: 1104–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hamill P, Turco RP, Kiang CS, Toon OB, Whitten RC (1982) An analysis of various nucleation mechanisms for sulfate particles in the stratosphere. J Aerosol Sci 13: 561–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hamill P, Toon OB, Turco RP (1986) Characteristics of polar stratospheric clouds during the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole. Geophys Res Lett 13: 1288–1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hamill P, Turco RP, Toon OB (1988) On the growth of nitric and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under stratospheric conditions. J Atmos Chem 7:287– 315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hamill P, Toon OB, Turco RP (1990) Aerosol nucleation in the winter Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres. Geophys Res Lett 17: 417–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hansen JE, Wang W, Lacis AA (1978) Mt. Agung eruption provides test of a global climatic perturbation. Science 199: 1065–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hanson DR (1990) The vapor pressure of supercooled HNO3/H2O solutions. Geophys Res Lett 17: 421–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hanson D, Mauersberger K (1988a) Vapor pressures of HNO3/H2O solutions at low temperatures. J Phys Chem. 92: 6167–6170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hanson D, Mauersberger K (1988b) Laboratory studies of the nitric acid trihydrate: Implications for the south polar stratosphere. Geophys Res Lett 15: 855–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hanson D, Mauersberger K (1990) HCl/H2O solid phase vapor pressure and HC1 solubility in ice. J Phys Chem 94: 4700–4705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hanson DR, Ravishankara AR (1991a) The reaction probabilities of ClONO2 and N2O5 on polar stratospheric cloud materials. J Geophys Res 96: 5081–5090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hanson DR, Ravishankara AR (1991b) The loss of CF2O on ice, NAT, and sulfuric acid solutions. Geophys Res Lett 18: 1699–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hanson DR, Ravishankara AR (1991c) The reaction probabilities of ClONO2 and N2O5 on 40 to 75% sulfuric acid solutions. J Geophys Res 96:17, 307–17, 314Google Scholar
  39. Hanson DR. Ravishankara AR (1992) Investigation of the reactive and nonreactive processes involving CIONO2 and HC1 on water and nitric acid doped ice. J Phys Chem 96: 2682–2691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hofmann DJ (1989) Direct ozone depletion in springtime Antarctic lower stratospheric clouds. Nature 337: 447–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hofmann DJ (1990a) Measurement of the condensation nuclei profile to 31 km in the Arctic in January 1989 and comparisons with Antarctic measurements. Geophys Res Lett 17: 357–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hofmann DJ (1990b) Stratospheric cloud micro-layers and small-scale temperature variations in the Arctic in 1989. Geophys Res Lett 17:369– 372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hofmann DJ (1990c) Increase in the stratospheric background sulfuric acid aerosol mass in the past 10 years. Science 248: 96–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hofmann DJ (1991) Aircraft sulfur emissions. Nature 349: 659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hofmann DJ, Solomon S (1989) Ozone destruction through heterogeneous chemistry following the eruption of El Chichon. J Geophys Res 94: 5029–5041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hofmann DJ, Rosen JM, Harder JW, Hereford JV (1989) Balloonborne measurements of aerosol, condensation nuclei, and cloud particles in the stratosphere at McMurdo Station Antarctica during the spring of 1987. J Geophys Res 94:11, 253–11, 269Google Scholar
  47. Jensen EJ, Toon OB, Hamill P (1991) Homogeneous freezing nucleation of stratospheric solution droplets. Geophys Res Lett 18: 1857–1860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnston DA (1980) Volcanic contribution of chlorine to the stratosphere: More significant to ozone than previously estimated? Science 209: 491–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jones RL, Austin J, McKenna DS, Anderson JG, Fahey DW, Farmer CB, Heidt LE, Kelly KK, Murphy DM, Proffitt MH, Tuck AF, Vedder JF (1989) Lagrangian photochemical modeling studies of the 1987 Antarctic spring vortex. 1. Comparison with AAOE observations. J Geophys Res 94:11, 529–11, 558Google Scholar
  50. Jones RL, McKenna DS, Poole LR, Solomon S (1990) On the influence of polar stratospheric cloud formation on chemical composition during the 1988/89 Arctic winter. Geophys Res Lett 17: 545–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Junge CE (1963) Sulfur in the stratosphere. J Geophys Res 68: 3975Google Scholar
  52. Junge CE, Manson JE (1961) Stratospheric aerosol studies. J Geophys Res 66: 2163–2182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Keyser LF, Moore SB, Leu M-T (1991) Surface reaction and pore diffusion in flow-tube reactors. J Phys Chem 95: 5496–5502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kinne S, Toon OB, Toon GC, Farmer CB, Browell EV, McCormick MP (1989) Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra. J Geophys Res 94:16, 481–16,491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kinne S, Toon OB, Prather MJ (1992) Buffering of stratospheric circulation by changing amounts of tropical ozone: A Pinatubo case study. Geophys Res Lett 19: 1927–1930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kirchner S, Delmas RJ (1988) A 1000 year glaciochemical study at the south pole. Ann Glaciol 10: 80–84Google Scholar
  57. Kondo Y, Aimedieu P, Koike M, Iwasaka Y, Newman PA, Schmidt U, Matthews WA, Hayashi M, Sheldon WR (1992) Reactive nitrogen, ozone, and nitrate aerosols observed in the Arctic stratosphere in January 1990. J Geophys Res 97:13,025–13,038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lamb HH (1977) Climate: Present, Past and Future, Vol. 2, Climatic History and the Future. Methuen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  59. Lazrus AL, Gandrud BW, Woodard RN, Sedlacek WA (1976) Direct measurements of stratospheric chlorine and bromine. J Geophys Res 81: 1067–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lazrus AL, Cadle RD, Gandrud BW, Greenberg JP, Huebert BJ, Rose WI (1979) Sulfur and halogen chemistry of the stratosphere and of volcanic eruption plumes. J Geophys Res 84: 7869–7875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Legrand M, Delmas RJ (1984) The ionic balance of Antarctic snow: A 10 year detailed record. Atmos Environ 18: 1867–1874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Leu M-T (1988a) Laboratory studies of sticking coefficients and heterogeneous reactions important in the Antarctic stratosphere. Geophys Res Lett 15: 17–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leu M-T (1988b) Heterogeneous reactions of N2O5 with H2O and HC1 on ice surfaces. Geophys Res Lett 15: 851–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Leu M-T, Moore SB, Keyser LF (1991) Heterogeneous reactions of chlorine nitrate and hydrogen chloride on Type-I polar stratospheric clouds. J Phys Chem 95: 7763–7771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Luo, BP, Peter Th, Crutzen P (1992) Maximum supercooling of H2SO4- aerosol droplets, paper presented at the Bunsen Meeting, Schliersee, Germany, October 6–9, 1991Google Scholar
  66. Mankin MG, Coffey MT (1984) Increased stratospheric hydrogen chloride in the El Chichon cloud. Science 226: 170–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mankin MG, Coffey MT, Goldman A (1992) Airborne observations of SO2, HC1 and O3 in the stratospheric plume of the Pinatubo Volcano in July 1991. Geophys Res Lett 19: 179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Marti J, Mauersberger K (1991) HC1 dissolved in solid mixtures of nitric acid and ice: Implications for the polar stratosphere. Geophys Res Lett 18: 1861–1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mather JH, Brune WH (1990) Heterogeneous chemistry on liquid sulfate aerosols: A comparison of in situ measurements with zero-dimensional model calculations. Geophys Res Lett 17: 1283–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. McCormick MP, Trepte CR (1986) SAM II measurements of Antarctic PSC’s and aerosols. Geophys Res Lett 13: 1276–1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McCormick MP, Trepte CR (1987) Polar stratospheric optical depth observed between 1978 and 1985. J Geophys Res 92: 4297–4306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McCormick MP, Steele HM, Hamill P, Chu WP, Swissler TJ (1982) Polar stratospheric cloud sightings by SAM II. J Atmos Sci 39: 1387–1397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McCormick MP, Trepte CR, Pitts MC (1989) Persistence of polar stratospheric clouds in the southern polar region. J Geophys Res 94:11, 241–11, 251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McElroy MB, Salawitch RJ, Wofsy SC, Logan JA (1986a) Reductions of Antarctic ozone due to synergistic interactions of chlorine and bromine. Nature 321: 759–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McElroy MB, Salawitch RJ, Wofsy SC (1986b) Antarctic O3: Chemical mechanisms for the spring decrease. Geophys Res Lett 13: 1296–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McKeen SA, Liu SC, Kiang CS (1984) On the chemistry of stratospheric SO2 following volcanic eruptions. J Geophys Res 89: 4873–4881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Michelangeli D, Allen M, Yung YL (1989) El Chichon volcanic aerosols: Impact of radiative, thermal and chemical perturbations. J Geophys Res 94:18, 429–18, 443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Molina MJ (1992) The probable role of stratospheric ‘ice’ clouds: Heterogeneous chemistry of the ‘ozone hole’ CHEMRAWN V II, Blackwell Sci Publ, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  79. Molina LT, Molina MJ (1987) Production of Cl2O2 by the self reaction of the ClO radical. J Phys Chem 91: 433–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Molina MJ. Tso T-L, Molina LT, Wang FC-Y (1987) Antartic stratospheric chemistry of chlorine nitrate, hydrogen chloride, and icce: Rlease of active chlorine. Science 283:1258–1257Google Scholar
  81. Moore SB, Keyser LF, Leu M-T, Turco RP, Smith RH (1990) Heterogeneous reactions on nitric acid trihydrate. Nature 345: 333–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mozurkewich M, Calvert JG (1988) Reaction probability of N2O5 on aqueous aerosols. J Geophys Res 93:15,889–15,896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nagatani R M, Miller AJ, Gelman ME, Newman PA (1990) A comparison of Arctic lower stratospheric winter temperatures for 1988–89 with temperatures since 1964. Geophys Res Lett 17: 333–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Peter Th, Brühl C. Crutzen PJ (1991) Increase in the PSC-formation probability caused by high-flying aircraft. Geophys Res Lett 18: 1465 - 1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pinto JP, Turco RP, Toon OB (1989) Self-limiting physical and chemical effects in volcanic eruption clouds. J Geophys Res 94:11, 165–11, 174Google Scholar
  86. Pitari G, Visconti G (1991) Sensitivity of stratospheric ozone to heterogeneous chemistry on sulfate aerosols. Geophys Res Lett 18:833– 836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pollack JB, Toon OB, Sagan C, Summers A, Baldwin B, Van Camp W (1976) Volcanic explosions and climatic change: A theoretical assessment. J Geophys Res 81: 1071–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Poole LR, McCormick MP (1988) Airborne lidar observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds: Indications of two distinct growth stages. Geophys Res Lett 15: 21–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Poole LR, Solomon S, Gandrud BW, Powell KA, Dye JE, Jones RL, McKenna DS (1990) The polar stratospheric cloud event of January 24, 1989, Part 1. Microphysics. Geophys Res Lett 17: 537–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Prather M (1992) Catastrophic loss of stratospheric ozone in dense volcanic cloud. J Geophys Res 97:10, 187–10, 191Google Scholar
  91. Prather MJ, Wesoky HL (eds) (1992) The Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft: A First Program Report. NASA Ref. Publ. 1272, 233 ppGoogle Scholar
  92. Pruppacher HR, Klett JD (1978) Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation. D. Reidel (ed), Dordrecht, HollandGoogle Scholar
  93. Pueschel RF, Snetsinger KG, Goodman JK, Toon OB, Ferry GV, Oberbeck VR, Livingston JM, Verma S, Fong W, Starr WL, Chan RK (1989)Condensed nitrate, sulfate and chloride in the Antarctic stratospheric aerosols. J Geophys Res 94:11, 271–11, 284Google Scholar
  94. Quinlan MA, Reihs CM, Golden DM, Tolbert MA (1990) Heterogeneous reactions on model polar stratospheric cloud surfaces: Reaction of N2O5 on ice and nitric acid trihydrate. J Phys Chem 94: 3255–3260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Reihs CM, Golden DM, Tolbert MA (1992) Heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 on sulfuric acid surfaces representative of the global stratospheric particulate. J Geophys Res (submitted)Google Scholar
  96. Rodriguez JM, Ko MKW, Sze ND (1991) Role of heterogeneous conversion of N2O5 on sulphate aerosols in global ozone losses Nature 352: 134–137Google Scholar
  97. Rogers RR, Yau MK (1989) A Short Course in Cloud Physics, 3rd edn. BPCC Wheatons Ltd., ExterGoogle Scholar
  98. Rose WI (1977) Scavenging of volcanic aerosol by ash: Atmospheric and volcanologic implications. Geology 5: 621–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rose WI, Chuan RL, Cadle RD, Woods DC (1980) Small particles in volcanic eruption clouds. Amer J Sci 280: 671–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rose WI, Chuan RL, Woods DC (1982) Small particles in plumes of Mount St. Helens. J Geophys Res 87: 4956–4962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rowland FS, Sato H, Khwaja H, Elliott SM (1986) The hydrolysis of chlorine nitrate and its possible atmospheric significance J Phys Chem 90: 1985–1988Google Scholar
  102. Salawitch RJ, Wofsy SC, McElroy MB (1988) Influence of polar stratospheric clouds on the depletion of ozone over Antarctica. Geophys Res Lett 15: 871–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith RH, Leu M-T, Keyser LF (1991) Infrared spectra of solid films formed from vapors containing water and nitric acid. J Phys Chem (in press)Google Scholar
  104. Smith DB, Zielinski RA, Rose WI, Huebert BJ (1982) Water soluble material on aerosols collected within volcanic eruption clouds. J Geophy Res 87: 4963–4972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Solomon S, Garcia RR, Rowland FS, Wuebbles DJ (1986) On the depletion of Antarctic ozone. Nature 321: 755–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Steele HM, Hamill P (1981) Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulphuric acid-water droplets in the stratosphere. J Aerosol Sci 12: 517–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Steele HM, Hamill P, McCormick MP, Swissler TJ (1983) The formation of polar stratospheric clouds. J Atmos Sci 40: 2055–2067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Stolarski RS, Bloomfield P, McPeters RD, Herman JR (1991) Total ozone trends deduced from Nimbus 7 TOMS data. Geophys Res Lett 18: 1015–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Symonds RB, Reed MH, Rose WI (1991) Origin, speciation, and fluxes of trace-element gases at Augustine volcano, Alaska: Insights into magma degassing and fumarolic processes. Geochem Cosmo Acta 56: 633–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tabazadeh A, Turco RP (1992a) Heterogeneous processes on the surfaces of ice and nitric acid trihydrate: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds. J Geophys Res (submitted)Google Scholar
  111. Tabazadeh A, Turco RP (1992b) Scavenging of HC1 in volcanic eruption clouds: Implication for stratospheric ozone. Science (submitted)Google Scholar
  112. Taylor PS, Stoiber RE (1973) Soluble material on ash from active central America volcanoes. Geol Soc Am Bull 84: 1031–1042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tolbert MA, Middlebrook AM (1990) Fourier transform infrared studies of model polar stratospheric cloud surfaces: Growth and evaporation of ice and nitric acid/ice. J Geophys Res 95:22, 423–22, 431Google Scholar
  114. Tolbert MA, Rossi MJ, Malhotra R, Golden DM (1987) Reaction of chlorine nitrate with hydrogen chloride and water at Antarctic stratospheric temperatures Science 238: 1258–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tolbert MA, Rossi MJ, Golden DM (1988a) Antarctic ozone depletion chemistry: Reactions of N2O5 with H2O and HC1 on ice surfaces. Science 240: 1018–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tolbert MA, Rossi MJ, Golden DM (1988b) Heterogeneous interactions of chlorine nitrate, hydrogen chloride, and nitric acid with sulfuric acid surfaces at stratospheric temperatures. Geophys Res Lett 15: 847–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Toohey DW, Brune WH, Chan KR, Anderson JG (1991) In situ measurements of midlatitude CIO in winter. Geophys Res Lett 18: 21–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Toon GC, Farmer CB, Lowes LL, Schaper PW, Blavier J-F, Norton RH (1989) Infrared aircraft measurements of stratospheric composition over Antarctica during September 1987. J Geophys Res 94:16, 571–16, 596Google Scholar
  119. Toon OB, Turco RP, Pollack JB, Whitten RC, Poppoff IG, Hamill P (1980) Stratospheric aerosol modification by supersonic transport operations with climate implications. NASA Reference Publ. 1058, 17 ppGoogle Scholar
  120. Toon OB, Hamill P, Turco RP, Pinto J (1986) Condensation of HNO3 and HC1 in the winter polar stratospheres. Geophys Res Lett 13: 1284–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Toon OB, Turco RP, Jordan J, Goodman J, Ferry G (1989) Physical processes in polar stratospheric ice clouds. J Geophys Res 94:11, 359–11, 380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Toon OB, Turco RP, Hamill P (1990) Denitrification mechanisms in the polar stratospheres. Geophys Res Lett 17: 445–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tuck AF, Daivies T, Hovde SJ, Noguer-Alba M, Fahey DW, Kawa SR, Kelly KK, Murphy DM, Proffitt MH, Margitan JJ, Loewenstein M, Podolske JR, Strahan SE, Chan KR (1992) Polar stratospheric cloud processed air and potential vorticity in the Northern Hemisphere lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes during winter. J Geophys Res 97: 7883–7904Google Scholar
  124. Turco RP (1991) Volcanic aerosols: Chemistry, microphysics, evolution and effects. Proc. Workshop on Volcanism-Climate Interactions, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, June 18–19, 1990, NASAConf. Publ. 10062, 30 ppGoogle Scholar
  125. Turco RP, Hamill P (1992) Supercooled sulfuric acid droplets: Perturbed stratospheric chemistry in early winter. Ber Bunsenges Phys Chem 96: 323–334Google Scholar
  126. Turco RP, Hamill P, Toon OB, Whitten RC, Kiang CS (1979) A one- dimensional model describing aerosol formation and evolution in the stratosphere: Part I. Physical processes and mathematical analogs. J Atmos Sci 36: 699–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Turco RP, Toon OB, Pollack JB, Whitten RC, Poppoff IG, Hamill P (1980) Stratospheric aerosol modification by supersonic transport and space shuttle operations — climate implications. J Appl Meteorol 19: 78–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Turco RP, Whitten RC, Toon OB (1982) Stratospheric aerosols: Observation and theory. Rev Geophys 20: 233–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Turco RP, Toon OB, Whitten RC, Hamill P, Keesee RG (1983) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens: Physical and chemical processes in the stratospheric clouds. J Geophys Res 88: 5299–5319Google Scholar
  130. Turco RP, Toon OB, Hamill P (1989) Heterogeneous physicochemistry of the polar ozone hole. J Geophys Res 94:16, 493–16, 510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. US Standard Atmosphere (1976) US Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  132. Van Doren JM, Watson LR, Davidovits P, Worsnop DR, Zahniser MS, Kolb CE (1991) Uptake of N2O5 and HNO3 by aqueous sulfuric acid droplets. J Phys Chem 95: 1684–1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Varekamp JC, Luhr JF, Prestegaardd KL (1984) The 1982 eruption of El Chichon volcano (Chiapas, Mexico ): Character of the eruption, ash-fall deposits, and gas phase. J Vole Geoth Res 23: 39–68Google Scholar
  134. Vogelmann AM, Ackerman TP, Turco RP (1992) Enhancements in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation following volcanic eruptions. Nature 359: 47–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wallace L, Livingston W (1992) The effect of the Pinatubo clouds on hydrogen chloride and bromide. Geophys Res Lett 19: 1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Watson LR, Van Doren JM, Davidovits P, Worsnop DR, Zahniser MS, Kolb CE (1990) Uptake of HC1 molecules by aqueous sulfuric acid droplets as a function of acid concentration. J Geophys Res 95: 5631–5638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Watson RT, et al. (1988) Present state of knowledge of the upper atmosphere 1988: An assessment report. NASA Ref. Publ. 1208, Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  138. Watson RT, et al. (1989) Report of the International Ozone Trends Panel - 1988, World Meteorological Report No. 18Google Scholar
  139. Westrich HR, Gerlach TM (to be published) A magmatic gas source for the stratospheric SO2 cloud from the June 15, 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo. GeosciencesGoogle Scholar
  140. WMO (1992) World Meteorological Organization, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Report #25, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  141. Wolff EW, Mulvaney R (1991) Reactions on sulphuric acid aerosol and on polar stratospheric clouds in the Antarctic stratosphere. Geophys Res Lett 18: 1007–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wolff EW, Mulvaney R, Oates K (1989) Diffusion and location of hydrochloric acid in ice: Implications for the polar stratospheric clouds and ozone depletion. Geophys Res Lett 16: 487–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wofsy SC, Molina MJ, Salawitch RJ, Fox LE, McElroy MB (1988) Interactions between HC1, NOx, and H2O ice in the Antarctic stratosphere: Implications for ozone. J Geophys Res 93: 2442–2450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wofsy SC, Salawitch RJ, Yatteau JH, McElroy MB, Gandrud BW, Dye JE, Baumgardner D (1990) Condensation of HNO3 on falling ice particles: Mechanism for denitrification of the polar stratosphere. Geophys Res Lett 17: 449–452Google Scholar
  145. Woods AW (1988) The fluid dynamics and thermodynamics of eruption columns. Bull Volcanol 50: 169–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Woods DC, Chuan RL, Rose WI (1985) Halite particles injected into the stratosphere by the 1982 El Chichon eruption. Science 230: 170–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Worsnop DR, Fox LE, Zahniser MS, Wofsy SC (1992) Vapor pressures of solid hydrates of nitric acid: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds. Science (submitted)Google Scholar
  148. Zhao JX, Turco RP (1992) Particle nucleation in aircraft jet exhaust. J Aerosol Sci (submitted)Google Scholar
  149. Zolensky ME, MacKay DS, Kaczor LA (1989) A tenfold increase in the abundance of large particles in the stratosphere, as measured over the period 1976–1984. J Geophys Res 94: 1047–1056CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. P. Turco
    • 1
    • 3
  • K. Drdla
    • 1
  • A. Tabazadeh
    • 1
  • P. Hamill
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsSan Jose State UniversitySan JoseUSA
  3. 3.Center for Earth System ResearchInstitute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, UCLAUSA

Personalised recommendations