Seaweeds as Resources

  • B. Santelices
  • C. L. Griffiths
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 103)


The ability to fix the energy of sunlight and convert it into organic matter is recognized as the most important ecological role of benthic algae in coastal marine ecosystems. The organic matter and chemically bound energy produced by seaweeds enters food webs either directly by grazing or indirectly via the production of organic detritus or dissolved organic matter by the plants (e.g. Newell et al. 1982).


Sandy Beach Seaweed Resource Intertidal Level Lessonia Nigrescens Kelp Holdfast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen JC, Griffiths CL (1981) The fauna and flora of a kelp bed canopy. S Afr J Zool 16: 80–84Google Scholar
  2. Anderson RJ, Simons RH, Jarman NG (1989) Commercial seaweeds in southern Africa: a review of utilization and research. S Afr J Mar Sci 8: 277–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson RJ, Simons RH, Jarman NG, Levitt GJ (1991) Gelidium pristoides in South Africa. Hydrobiologia 221:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beckley LE (1982) Studies on the littoral seaweed epifauna of St. Croix Island 3. Gelidium pristoides (Rhodophyta) and its epifauna. S Afr J Zool 17: 3–10Google Scholar
  5. Borchers P, Field JG (1981) The effect of kelp shading on phytoplankton prodution. Bot mar 24: 89–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Branch GM, Griffiths CL (1988) The Benguela ecosystem. Part V. The coastal zone. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 26: 395–486Google Scholar
  7. Cancino JM, Santelices B (1981) The ecological importance of kelp-like holdfasts as a habitat of invertebrates in central Chile II. Factors affecting community organization. Int Seaweed Symp 10: 241–246Google Scholar
  8. Cancino JM, Santelices B (1984) Importancia ecologica de los discos adhesivos de Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Phaeophyta) en Chile central. Rev Chil Hist Nat 56: 23–33Google Scholar
  9. Carter AH, Anderson RJ (1985) Regrowth after experimental harvesting of the agarophyte Gelidium pristoides (Gelidiales: Rhodophyta) in the eastern Cape Province. S Afr J Mar Sci 3: 111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carter RA (1985) Reproductive morphology and phenology and culture studies of Gelidium pristoides (Rhodophyta) from Port Alfred in South Arica. Bot Mar 28: 303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carter RA, Anderson RJ (1986) Seasonal growth and agar contents in Gelidium pristoides (Gelidiales: Rhodophyta) from Port Alfred, South Africa. Bot Mar 29: 117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carter RA, Anderson RJ (1991) Biological and physical factors controlling the spatial distribution of the intertidal alga Gelidium pristoides in the eastern Cape, South Africa. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 71: 555–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carter RA, Simons RH (1987) Regrowth and production capacity of Gelidium pristoides (Gelidiales: Rhodophyta) under various harvesing regimes at Port Alfred, South Africa. Bot Mar 20: 227–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christie ND (1981) Primary production in Langebaan Lagoon. In: Day JH (ed) Estuarine ecology with particular reference to southern Africa. Balkema, Cape Town, pp 101–115Google Scholar
  15. Dayton P (1975) Experimental evaluation of ecological dominance in a rocky intertidal algal community. Ecol Monogr 45: 137–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Field JG, Griffiths CL, Linley EAS, Zoutendyk P, Carter BA (1981) Wind induced water movements in a Benguela kelp bed. In: Richards FA (ed) coastal upwelling research. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp 507–513Google Scholar
  17. Fricke AH (1979) Kelp grazing by the common sea urchin Parechinus angulosus Leske in False Bay, Cape. S Afr J Zool 14: 143–148Google Scholar
  18. Gibbons MJ (1988) Studies on the meiofauna of rocky shores. PhD Thesis, Zoology Department, University of Cape Town, pp 1–102Google Scholar
  19. Griffiths CL, Stenton-Dozey JME, Koop K (1983) Kelp wrack and the flow of energy through a sandy beach ecosystem. In: McLachlan A, Erasmus T (eds) Sandy beaches as ecosystems. Junk, the Hague, pp 547–556Google Scholar
  20. Guiler ER (1959) The intertidal ecology of the Montemar area, Chile. R Soc Tasmania Pap Proc 93: 165–183Google Scholar
  21. Hannach G, Santelices B (1985) Ecological differences between the isomorphic reproductive phases of two species of Iridaea (Rhodophyta: Gigartinales). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 22: 291–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hockey PAR, Siegfried WR, Crowe AA, Cooper J (1983) Ecological structure and energy requirements of the sandy beach avifauna of southern Africa. In: McLachlan A, Erasmus T (eds) Sandy beaches as ecosystems. Junk, The Hague, pp 507–521Google Scholar
  23. Isaac WE (1942) Seaweeds of possible economic importance in the Union of South Africa. J S Afr Bot 8: 225–236Google Scholar
  24. Isaac WE (1956) The ecology of Gracilaria confervoides (L.) Grey in South Africa with special reference to its ecology in the Saldanha-Langebaan Lagoon. In: Braarud T, Sorensen NA (eds) Proc 2nd Int Seaweed Symp Trondheim 1955. Pergamon Press, London, pp 173–185Google Scholar
  25. Jarman NG, Carter RA (1981) The primary producers of the inshore regions of the Benguela. Trans R Soc S Afr 44: 321–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jarman N, Griffiths CL (1988) Seaweed exploitation on the West Coast of South Africa. 19641986. S Afr Nat Prog Sci Rep 157: 127–129Google Scholar
  27. Joyce L, Santelices B (1978) Produccion y explotacion de algas en Chile. Biol Pes 10: 3–26Google Scholar
  28. Koop K, Newell RC, Lucas MI (1982a) Biodegradation and carbon flow based on kelp (Ecklonia maxima) debris in a sandy beach microcosm. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 7: 315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koop K, Newell RC, Lucas MI (1982b) Microbial regeneration of nutrients from the decomposition of macrophyte debris on the shore. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 9: 91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lawrence CN (1971) Estudio economico-social de la produccion y comercializacion de algas marinas en Chile. Tesis de Grado, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, ChileGoogle Scholar
  31. Lopehandia J (1986) Problemas y perspectivas en la utilizacion de las algas chilenas. Monogr Biol 4: 29–44Google Scholar
  32. Lubchenco J (1980) Algal zonation in a New England rocky intertidal community: an experimental analysis. Ecology 61: 333–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Montalva S, Santelices B (1981) Interspecific interference among species of Gelidium from central Chile. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 53: 77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moreno C, Jaramillo E (1983) The role of grazers in the zonation of intertidal macroalgae of the Chilean coast near Valdivia. Oikos 41: 73–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Newell RC, Field JG, Griffiths CL (1982) Energy balance and significance of micro-organisms in a kelp bed community. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 8: 103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ojeda PF, Santelices B (1984) Ecological dominance of Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyta) in central Chile. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 19: 83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pizarro A (1986) Conocimiento actual y avances recientes sobre el manejo y cultivo de Gracilaria en Chile. Monogr Biol 4: 63–69Google Scholar
  38. Rotmann KWG (1987) The collection, utilization and potential farming of red seaweeds in Namibia. Hydrobiologia 151 /152: 301–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Santelices B (1982) Bases biologicas para el manejo de Lessonia nigrescens en Chile central. Monogr Biol 2: 135–150Google Scholar
  40. Santelices B (1988) Necesidad de repoblacion, metodos alternativos de cultivo y sugerencias de desarrollo del recurso pelillo (Gracilaria spp.) en Chile. Invest Pesq (Chile) 35: 49–63Google Scholar
  41. Santelices B (1990) Patterns of organization of intertidal and shallow subtidal vegetation in wave-exposed habitats of central Chile. Hydrobiologia 192: 35–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Santelices B, Avila M (1986) Bases biologicas para maximizar cosecha de luche (Porphyra columbina Montagne) en Chile central. In: Westemeier R (ed) Actas del Segundo CongresoGoogle Scholar
  43. Nacional sobre Algas Marinas Chilenas. Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdiva, Chile, pp 201–211Google Scholar
  44. Santelices B, Doty MS (1989) A review of Gracilaria farming. Aquaculture 77: 95–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Santelices B, Fonck E (1979) Ecologia y cultivo de Gracilaria lemanaeformis en Chile central. In: Santelices B (ed) Actas del Primer Symposio sobre Algas Marinas Chilenas. Subsecretaria de Pesca. Ministerio de Economia Fomento y Reconstruccion, Santiago, Chile, pp 165–200Google Scholar
  46. Santelices B, Lopehandia J (1981) Chilean seaweed resources: a quantitative review of potential and present utilization. Proc Int Seaweed Symp 10: 725–730Google Scholar
  47. Santelices B, Norambuena R (1987) A harvesting strategy for Iridaea laminarioides in central Chile. Hydrobiologia 151 /152: 329–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Santelices B, Ojeda FP (1984) Recruitment, growth and survival of Lessonia nigrescens (Phaeophyta) at various tidal levels in exposed habitats of central Chile. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 19: 73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Santelices B, Ugarte R (1987) Production of Chilean Gracilaria.’ problems and perspectives. Proc Int Seaweed Symp 12: 295–300Google Scholar
  50. Santelices B, Castilla L, Cancino J, Schmiede P (1980) Comparative ecology of Lessonia nigrescens and Durvillaea antarctica (Phaeophyta) in central Chile. Mar Biol 59: 119–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Santelices B, Montalva S, Oliger P (1981a) Competitive algal community organization in exposed intertidal habitats from central Chile. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 6: 267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Santelices B, Oliger P, Montalva S (1981b) Production ecology of Chilean Gelidiales. Proc Int Seaweed Symp 10: 351–356Google Scholar
  53. Santelices B, Vasquez J, Ohme U, Fonck E (1984) Managing wild crops of Gracilaria in central Chile. Hydrobiologia 116 /117: 77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Simons RH (1976) Seaweeds of southern Africa: guidelines for their study and identification. Fish Bull S Afr 7: 1–113Google Scholar
  55. Simons RH, Jarman NG (1981) Subcommercial harvesting of a kelp on a South African shore. Levring T (ed) Proc 10th Int Seaweed Symp. Gruyter, Berlin, pp 731–736Google Scholar
  56. Stenton-Dozey JME, Griffiths CL (1983) The fauna associated with kelp stranded on a sandy beach. In: McLachlan A, Erasmus T (eds) Sandy beaches and ecosystems. Junk, The Hague, pp 557–568Google Scholar
  57. Vasquez J, Santelices B (1984) Comunidades de macroinvertebrados en discos adhesivos de Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Phaeophyta) en Chile central. Rev Chil Hist Nat 57: 131–154Google Scholar
  58. Velimirov B, Griffiths (1979) Wave-induced kelp movement and its importance for community structure. Bot Mar 22: 167–172Google Scholar
  59. Velimirov B, Field JG, Griffiths CL, Zoutendyk P (1977) The ecology of kelp bed communities in the Benguela upwelling system. Analysis of biomass and spatial distribution. Helgol Wiss Meeresunters 30: 495–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Westermeier R, Rivera PJ, Chacana M, Gomez I (1987) Biological bases for management of Iridaea laminarioides Bory in southern Chile. Hydrobiologia 151 /152: 313–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wulff FV, Field JG (1983) Importance of different trophic pathways in a nearshore benthic community under upwelling and downwelling conditions. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 12: 217–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Santelices
  • C. L. Griffiths

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations