The Biology of ADP-Ribosylation Factors
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosylation factor (ARF) was originally defined as an activity required for the efficient activation of the purified, stimulatory, regulatory component of adenylyl cyclase, Gs, by cholera toxin (Schleifer et al. 1982; Kahn 1989, 1991). The toxin catalyzes the covalent addition of the ADP-ribose moiety of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto the α subunit of Gs. The consequences of this modification include decreased intrinsic GTP hydrolysis by the Gs protein (Cassel and Selinger 1979) and its consequent activation and subunit dissociation (Kahn and Gilman 1984a). Thus, while GTP alone is normally a very weak stimulator of membrane cyclase, after ADP-ribosylation GTP is nearly as potent as the slowly hydrolyzable analogs of GTP, e. g., GTPγS or Gpp(NH)p.
KeywordsAdenylate Cyclase Cholera Toxin Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Golgi Membrane Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase
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